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Surface and Groundwater Quality Verification in Rivers State A Case Study of Amaji and Elechi

Surface and Groundwater Quality Verification in Rivers State

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Reference ID: PS-345-TM


This research work titled "Surface and Groundwater Quality Verification in Rivers State (A Case Study of Amaji and Elechi)" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.


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Surface and Groundwater Quality Verification in Rivers State (A Case Study of Amaji and Elechi)




  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of the problem
  • 1.2 Statement of problems
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Scope of the study
  • 1.5 Significance of the study


  • 2.0 Water and waste water characteristics
  • 2.1 Basic water chemistry
  • 2.2 Sources of water and their characteristics
  • 2.3 Physical characteristics
  • 2.4 Physio-chemical characteristics of water
  • 2.5 Microbial characteristics of water
  • 2.6 The WHO and NAFDAC standard table
  • 2.7 Portable drinking water quality
  • 2.8 River pollution


  • 3.0 Methods and Materials
  • 3.1 Secondary data
  • 3.2 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
  • 3.3 Bacteriological test



The topic is “water Quality”. This research work will be undertaken to investigate the microbial and physiochemical characteristics of water samples that will be collected from Amaji river. Today the need for water to be safe and clean is very important because it contributes to about 70% of human life.

This is why it is necessary to find out if the water are harboring pathogenic organisms, metallic ions and if it does, to find out the possible source of contamination and degree of pollution such as water as well as possible ways of controlling such pollutants.

The information on the methods employed will be obtained from technologists (chemistry/Biochemistry department, Federal Polytechnic Nekede), books and especially from Microbiologists, some of the method that will employed like filter membrane technique, titrimetric method, spectrophotometric and colorimetric method will be applied in the analysis of all the samples that will be collected.

Surface and Groundwater Quality Verification in Rivers State (A Case Study of Amaji and Elechi)


1.0 Introduction

Surface waters are subjected to pollution. The discharge on the Amaji River from waste water contains various contaminants that are very hazardous on people using the water for domestic purposes and life of aquatic animals in the river. These harmful components accumulate over time in the river. An integrated approach for the evolution of the impact of waste water effluents was used to enumerate an ecological risk assessment to Amaji river.

The effluents from industrial areas were discharge too closely into Amaji river Biological treated industrial effluents creates great amount of barely biodegradable organic pollution, organic nitrogen, ammonia, phosphorus and sometime zinc. The toxicity of effluents was mostly dependent of chemical composition.

The municipal discharge contained great amount of organic compound that was completely biodegraded and is still had a great nutrient pollution loaded. The harmful substances from the effluent were traced in the river down stream site slightly higher concentration of organic pollutants, organic nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc were detected due to discharge.

In toxicity test, samples of the river waste were toxic. Sediments at the down stream. Site accumulated from discharge organic phosphorous or zinc. So it is obvious we must reduce the quantity of nutrients in the effluent waste water. in both effluent, it will be necessary to reduce the limiting elements for growth of algae and macrophytes in the river.

Every community produces both liquid and solid waste. The liquid portion waste water is essentially the water supply of the community after it has been fouled by a variety of users from one stand point of source of generating waste water . may be defined as a combination of one liquids or water carried waste that was removed from residence, institution, commercial and industrial establishment together with such ground water, surface water, storm water as may be present.

If untreated waste water is allowed to accumulate the decomposition of the organic material content can lead to the production of large quantities of malodorous gasses. in addition, untreated waste water usually contain numerous pathogenic or diseases causing microorganism that dwell in the humans intestinal tracks or that maybe present in certain industrial waste.

waste water also contains nutrient which can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants, and it may contain toxic compounds for this reason, the immediate and nuisance free removal of waste water from its source of generation followed by treatment and disposal, is not only described but also necessary in an industrialized society.

1.1 Background of the Study

Surface water has been a source of water which is put into several uses. It can be stream, river or sea. The source of this form of water collection has been through perception , ground water movement etc. not minding the fact that surface water is been put into various important uses, it is sometimes especially in the developing countries being contaminated by the uncontrolled discharge of foul water (sewage) or other organic materials.

These sewage discharges can be categorized in the following groups:Domestic sewage: these comprise sullage is waste water from personal washing, laundry, kitchen as regards for preparation and body waste.

Industrial sewage: these have many treatment methods being developed to deal with health and environment concerns associated with it.

The background of this study looks into Amaji River as a source of water for the neighboring community and is being polluted with waste water; careful assessment of the health and environmental effects becomes important in this report to know the level for which this water is polluted.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Water quality issues arises when increasing amount of waste water are discharged to water bodies that are eventually used as a water disposers. The water of Amaji river are used for domestic and industrial water supply and a repository for the resulting untreated water.

Significant questions remain about the testing and level of treatment necessary to protects human health where the commingling source result in an indirect portable use. This research work looks into the health and environmental problems encountered in using this river as a source of water supply for variously used.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

This research has been designed with the objectives of finding out exactly, the components of the discharged urine, soil origin organisms. Fecal, organic matters, (sullage) from federal medical centre (F M C), and their effect on the quality of water at Amaji river.

Also the sole objective of this project is to know exactly the health implication these sorts of degradation to the user of the river, people living around the area. And most importantly to give solution to the problems observed in the course of this study and also give reasonable answers to the research questions.

1.5 Scope of the Study

There are several forms of surface water pollution which are caused either through discharged from waste discharging channels, sewage run- offs or even through infiltration and seepage of mineral constituents. This research work will study all this forms of contaminations with respect to the federal medical centre (F M C) and as the source of contamination.

It will also give the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water and waste water and compared them with the world health organization (WHO) standard.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significant of this study is to:

Prepare a paper that will serve as an academic tool to help student that will handle such a related project with confidence.

Help in solving the problem of waste water discharge in a river.

Create an awareness of the health implication of untreated water to the public


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

Summary Headlines for Surface and Groundwater Quality Verification in Rivers State