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The Effects of Inadequate Funding on Rural Areas A Case Study of AbuaOdual Local Government Area

The Effects of Inadequate Funding on Rural Areas

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Reference ID: PS-111-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “The Effects of Inadequate Funding on Rural Areas” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Accountancy / Accounting, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “The Effects of Inadequate Funding on Rural Areas” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


The Effects of Inadequate Funding on Rural Areas (A Case Study of Abua-Odual Local Government Area)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of Study
  • 1.3 Statement of Problems
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.7 Significance of Study
  • 1.8 Scope of Study
  • 1.9 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.10 Definition Of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Review
  • 2.3 Challenges of Rural Area Development In Nigeria
  • 2.4 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.5 Classification of Funds
  • 2.6 Restoring Infrastructure and Services
  • 2.7 Local Government Reform
  • 2.8 Sources of Revenue for Local Governments
  • 2.9 Fiscal Federalism
  • 2.10 Evaluation of Local Government in Nigeria
  • 2.11 Empirical Studies

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of Study
  • 3.4 Sampling and Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Validation of Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Questionnaire
  • 3.8.1 Interview
  • 3.8.2 Key Informants Interview
  • 3.8.3 Observation
  • 3.9 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT AND DISCUSSION

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Test of Hypothesis 1
  • 4.4 Test of Hypothesis 2
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A “QUESTIONNAIRE”

ABSTRACT

The study determines the effects of inadequate funding in rural development with particular reference to Abua-Odual local government Area in Rivers State. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out to analyze the various sources of funded available to local government, determine why the funds are usually inadequate to meet up the set goal, analyze the process of allocation from the federal government down to the local government, determine other factors such as poor management and accountability that contributed to funds been inadequate, and ensure inadequate funding in local government are to enhance rapid rural development. The research design used in this report is descriptive design, utilizing questionnaire method to obtain information from the respondents for this project. A total of 200 (two hundred) respondents were selected for this study to represent the entire population of the study. For null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the one-way ANOVA and the t-test statistical tools at 0.05 level of significance. Primary data were collected from the primary source which questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection while secondary data were sources from textbooks, journals, newspapers and the internet were employed. The data were presented on a frequency distribution table and analyzed using simple percentage, while hypothesis was tested using chi-square test. From our findings we discover that the causes of funds not being adequate could be attributed to various reasons, and also the researcher made recommendations as the allocations of funds should be review along side with encouraging internal revenue generation in the rural areas using our case study Abua-ODual local government area is highly under developed due to the funds available too it are inadequate or are been misappropriated.


The Effects of Inadequate Funding on Rural Areas (A Case Study of Abua-Odual Local Government Area)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

This study was prompted by the cry against the inadequate of fund been released to government especially locale government area in the country. Generally majority of local government project are usually slow or never got computed and this been appropriated to them for this project. In typical democratic government which is the government arrangement of the day, a lot of plans and funds are stated in budget (yearly) on how to develop rural areas and make life more bearable for the inhabitants Funding is very important in the development of any project and not just finding but adequate funding, this is because without this funds nothing can be done. It does not matter if the funds generated internally or is been appropriated to that region by the government, if the is being not adequate then the cam is defected so in this study, we will be taking a artificial look at the causes of this inadequate funding and how deep its effect has eaten into the rural development of most parts of this country.

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitations of the Study and Definition of technical terms.


1.2 Background of Study

Funding is very important in the development of any project and not just funding but adequate funding, this is because without these funds nothing can be done.

It does not matter if the fund is generated internally or is been appropriated to that region by the government, if it is not adequate then the cam is defected so in this study, we will be taking a critical look at the causes of this has eaten into the rural development of most parts of this country. There are also important factor that constitutes to fund, if it is adequate or inadequate, they include government policies, accountability of managers of public funds, the need of the community in questioned and so many others.

Therefore, in Abua-odual Local Government Area where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to know the Effects of Inadequate Funding on Rural Areas.


1.3 Statement of Problems

Local government funding problems are various categories and each one of them is equal allocations from the federal government. Local government is the third tier of government in Nigeria, state government however have a considered influence over the local government council, but the function of local government are now recognized by the fourth schedule of the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria. There are various source of revenue of funds to the local government areas to help in the development of various rural areas.

The major problems of rural areas in Nigeria are summarized as, inadequate levels of agriculture productivity particular in food crop; high levels of absolute and rural poverty; and poor level of infrastructure facilities (Shiru, 2008). The fundamental problems facing agricultural mechanization in Nigeria include adoption of mechanization strategies which are often proffered by government and international agencies that do not pay sufficient attention to the interests of the local farmers and to the processes of technological change (Kutte and Tya, 2001).

Also there is this age long problem of under development in most rural area of this federation and most time part on the facts that the funds available to them are inadequate. Although there are the other causes of under development, but when compared to the problems attributed to funds, we discover that adequate funding is almost impossible but does not mean the standard faced with its peculiar cause and implication on the society. We discover that must local government areas if asked, always narrow down their liability to perform or carry out the major projects to problem of inadequate funds.

This work is intended to investigate the problems of under development but concentrate mainly on the problems of inadequate funds.


1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of the study is to determine the effects of inadequate funding in rural development with particular reference to Abua-Odual local government Area in Rivers State. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

To analyze the various sources of funded available to local government.

  1. To determine why the funds are usually inadequate to meet up the set goals.
  2. To analyze the process of allocation from the federal government down to the local government
  3. To determine other factors such as poor management and accountability that contributed to funds been inadequate.
  4. To ensure inadequate funding in local government are to enhance rapid rural development.

1.5 Research Questions

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  • Does inadequate funding have any effect on the development of rural areas?
  • Does adequate funding improve the development of rural areas?
  • What is the attitude of staff of Abua-Odual local government area towards inadequate funding?
  • Inadequate funding is not a pancreas for development of local government?
  • Inadequate funding does not provide a tentative judgment in Abua-Odual local government area River state?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

In order to pursue the objective of this study, the following generalized statements have been designed to guide and aids in obtaining the result for the experiment to be conducted. For this work, the null hypothesis will be represented with H0 while the alternative hypothesis will be represented with hypothesis H1.

  • H01: There is no significant effect of inadequate funding on the development of rural areas
  • H02: Funding does not provide a tentative judgment in Abua-Odual local government area in Rivers State.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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