Nigeria economy had a lot of structural distortion in 1980's, the economic policies prior to 1985, made the Nation's economy vulnerable to external stocks. Consequently, the 1986 budget sought to de-emphasized controls and adopted policy measures arrived at expanding the economy resource. To attain this goal, the 1986 budget at a tone, introduced the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) which was launched in July 1986, in Nigeria.
Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) is a programme imposed on developing countries, especially on economic policy regions, by the Bretton Woods Institutions (i.e. the World Bank and International Monetary Fund). This is to improve a country's foreign investment by removing trade and investment regulations (i.e. deregulations). The deregulation policy is also an encouragement to efficient operation of the money market.
The deregulation policy was designed to:
i. Restructure and diversify the productive base of the economy in order to reduce dependency on the petroleum viability.
ii. To achieve focal and balance of payment viability.
iii. To lay the basis for sustainable, non-inflationary/minimal inflationary growth rate.
iv. To lessen the dominance of unproductive investment in the economy, improve the sector's efficiency and intensify the growth potential of the private sector and so on.
The banking industry which is a major instrument which government execute their policies, need to appropriately reposition itself to take full advantages of the gains that might arise from deregulation, as well as face the challenges. Deregulation of the economy will definitely pose some challenges to the banking industry:Competitive lending rates, effectiveness of management of credit/credit risk, etc.
1.1 Statement Of The Problem
Due to the undeveloped nature of Nigeria banking system, it is sometimes said that banks have not met the standard expected from them, especially in the introduction of deregulatory policy. There are many problems which the banking industry is no exception. They are as follows:
i. The reluctant competition between banks as a result of deregulatory policy and the possibility of bank failure which prompted the Federal Government to establish the Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC).
ii. The level of expertise in investment banking and corporate finance.
iii. Ability to effectively manage credit risk, etc.
These problems threaten the financial performance of the banks in Nigeria due to the information of deregulation in the economy.
1.2 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of banks, under a deregulated economy with a view of assessing the effects, challenges and benefits, as well as achievements which deregulation will likely pose on the banking industry. This study attempts to critically identify and analyze the impact of government deregulation of the economy on banking sector, with the aim of making useful recommendations on how to improve commercial banks performance and other banks in Nigeria.
Emphasis will also be made on the current banking practices and habits as means of battling with the challenges and the threats deregulation has brought with it. Also, to identify the various achievements made with the inception of the policy as well as to examine how effective banks have been since the inception of the policy.
Furthermore, this text will try to compare the activities of commercial banks under the system of regulation and deregulation in order to know the main objective of the policy is being achieved; Recommendations that will enhance the efficiency of banks operations will be equally made.
1.3 Significance And Relevance Of The Study
The findings of this work will contribute to knowledge in the subject matter, other researchers and the entire public will hopefully benefit from this study since it will form the basis for other research work.
1.4 Scope Of The Study
The scope of the study in terms of time available was within a space/length of two of three months, i.e. August through October, 2013; the scope, in terms of location was banks, which were selected at random in the capital city of Owerri. This selection was made to measure the performances of commercial banks under a deregulated economy, where there is other non-banking financial institution situated.
1.5 Limitations Of The Study
The limitations encountered during the researcher project were:
- Inadequate time length, which would have suitable to carry out a more explicit research; posed a constraint.
- Inadequate resources, i.e. Cost of transportation to and fro, the sampled environment, which were as a result of bad road network.
- Inadequate access to information, due to inability of bank official to disclosure full information, which were part of the banking ethics.
1.6 Research Methodology
The methodology applied in this research project includes Oral interviews with top-bank official (using random sampling). Questionnaire will also be administered to staff, mostly operational departments and few members of the management board.
1.7 Research Questions
They are as follows:
- Will deregulation lead to an upsurge in the number of commercial banks?
- Has deregulation of the economy resulted to an increase in profitability of commercial banks?
- Has deregulation led to an increase in banks' bad debts and doubtful debts?
1.8 Definition Of Operational Terms
(SAPs) Structural Adjustment Programmes:
These are economic policies for developing countries who have been promoted by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to encourage to an extent, private participation and removal of excessive government controls in the money market of the Nation (- World Health Organization).
An item of value demanded by banks as a security for loans granted to customers.
Credit: Money created by commercial banks through the means of loans and discount granted to customers.
The ‘loosening' of government regulations in a country to allow for private sector companies to operate business transactions with fewer restrictions. This is synonymous to financial deregulation.
procedures and techniques used, in tackling problems encountered in the course of the research.
List of questions in a printed form administered to respondents.
Fraction, or part of the population taken in a specified manner.
People selected from a population (i.e. sample) who are expected to answer questions asked to them during interviews or via questionnaires.
This is an economic system where private individuals are given freedom (in an extreme case) to rule the economic aspect of a country.
Coined by Adam Smith, it refers to individual attempts in maximizing their own good/to become healthy, and as a result, leads to the overall development of an economy.
In this context, it is used interchangeably with bank. Commercial bank refers to financial institution(s) established with the aim of providing loans and accepting deposit and making profit at the end of the financial year.
Is a bond, acknowledging a loan to a company usually the company's seal, which bears a fixed rate of interest. It is simply known as LOAN CAPITAL.
Rental payment for the use of credit borrowed, it also refers to returns received for parting with liquidity by lenders.