1.1 Background Of The Study
The Nigeria public administration of 1960 was an offshoot of British prototype for British bequeathed Nigeria with her model of public administration where she granted her independence in that year when Nigeria demanded for political emancipation.
During the period Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe was the governor general representing the queen, while Abubakar Tafawa Balewa served as the prime minister.
Due to some defectives in the 1960, many Nigerians wanted immediate changes to be made in the constitution in order to remove the awkward aspect of the constitution. This prompted the revision of 1960 independent constitution, and ushered in the 1963 republic constitution which made Nigeria a Republic. Some of the features of the immediate independent year could be identified as follows:
- Nigeria was a federation of three regions until 1963 when the fourth region was added.
- The first republic witnessed multi-party system.
- It was a parliamentary democracy
- The prime minister was the head of the executive
The second republic which began with the ascendance of the civilian government of President Sehu Shagari in 1971 abolished the parliamentary system of government.
Although Nigeria shifted away from the practice of the British parliamentary system and adopted the American presidentialism, she still maintains the dual civil service structure.
The second distinguishing feature of the Nigeria presidency was the fact that this constitution formally required the president to obtain advice from or consult with certain executive bodies before making decision on certain issues. The executive bodies were:the council of state, the federal civil service commission, the national defense council, the national economic council, the federal electoral commission, the national defense council, the police service commission, etc.
The third republic came into existence on 27th August 1993; who the departing military president, general Ibraham Babangida instituted the Interim National Government (ING), and placed chief Ernest Shonikan as the head of the Interim National Government until elections scheduled in February 1994.
This administration was unable to reverse Nigerians economic problems or to defuse lingering political tension.
The fourth republic came into existence in Nigeria in May 1999 under the administration of Olusegun Obasanjo after 16 years of consecution military regime. This administration inherited a country suffering economic stagnation and the detraction of most democratic institutions.
This republic ascended power with clear cut goal to improve. They are also dedicated to the re-orientation of the public service to the values of diligence, honesty, well remunerated service, supportive to democratic system reforms to bring effective performance and to enable them contribute to the economic wealth of the country.
Since 1999, the government has increased the salaries of worker twice, while several officials totally deprived of promotion have been promoted (the guardian May, 30 2007). It is believed that all these measures, including the organisation of training and orientation programmes are capable of attaining enlisting the support of the administration for democracy.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
The Nigeria public administration has faced a number of challenges and problems which have considerably undermined its capacity to serve as agent of democratic consolidation.
This work is out to look into the problem that has hindered public administration from enhancing democratic principles as outlined by Ayo; these include the following:
- Problem of coping with public expectation
- Problem of behaving ethically and maintaining constitutional order.
- Problem of quality personnel in the public service
- Problem of political influence by the politicians
- Problem of corruption
These problems highlighted above have been suggested tog the reason for the failure of public administration in displaying its rightful role In Nigeria.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The research is set out to examine the causes of military in politics in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. It hopes to examine a brief history of military in politics and also critically examine the military p[residency of General Ibrahim Babangida in Nigeria between 1985 and 1993. besides, the economic and political programmes of the regime, its merits and demerits are also considered. It presents suggestions and possible solutions to military intervention in Nigeria politics.
1.4 Research Questions
- Are there problems militating against public administration in their effort to enhance democratic principle?
- How free are administrators to participate in deciding matters that will lead to free and fair election?
- How often to politicians interfere with the duties of administrators?
- What is the relationship between politician and administrators?
- How often do politicians accept the input of administrators?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
This study is significance to develop the knowledge of public administration towards administration in enhancing democratic principles and directing them on how best to come against them.
It will broaden the knowledge of the general public who come across this work, on the role played by the public administration in enhancing democratic principles through efficient and effective public administrators.
It will also make the public to appreciate the role of public administration in developing and improving this democratic government.
Finally, to student and researchers, it will serve as a reference material to any work wished to carry out.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This implies to know the effort of public administration in enhancing democratic principles in Nigeria and their challenges, it was traced to the fourth republic which is the contemporary administration.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
The researcher was faced with some obstacles in the course of carrying out this study as result of some factors such as financial and material constraints which is beyond the researcher's control.
The time available for this research to be carried out is limited since other activities are bound to infringe and interfere with the time allocated to the project. This time has constantly been depleted by the incessant changes in the school calendar. Also being a student researcher, research is often expected to complete the work within a specific time for it to be successful.
Lack of funds:
This research is contained financially because of the high cost of material. The high cost of transportation occasioned by increased in fuel has not helped matters in any way since one has to travel to places to collect materials for the research. The result is that research fund may be insufficient or inadequate for one to carry out the research as would wish to.
There is a general condition of inadequacy of infrastructure such as; textbooks, libraries, telecommunication equipment, computer network and social amenities that make life comfortable for the researcher. The lack of appropriate textbooks in most libraries is a serious impediment to a research of this nature. Majority if the libraries are not well stocked with the prerequisite textbooks.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
According to Stephen P. Robbins, it is the universal process of efficiently getting activities completed with and through other people. This process concerned with planning, organizing, leading and controlling that take place to accomplish the objectives.
It refers to the coordination of all organized activities having its purpose in the implementation of public policies and programmes through the utilization of human and material. Nnoli perceives Public Administration as the machinery as well as the integral processes through which government reforms its functions.
It is the increased or further improvement of god quality, value of status of somebody of something.
We can define democracy as the system of government whereby the people, that is the electorate, exercise governmental power whether directly or indirectly through representatives elected by them periodically. Principle:
A guiding role for personal, organization or departmental behaviour.