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Antibacterial Activity of antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species

Antibacterial Activity of antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-15428-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Antibacterial Activity of antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Microbiology, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Antibacterial Activity of antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


Antibacterial Activity of antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Background of Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of Study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of Technical Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Concept of Salvia Officinalis
  • 2.1.1 History of Salvia Officinalis
  • 2.2 Classification and Nomenclature of Salmonella
  • 2.3 Concept of Pathogenesis
  • 2.4 Clinical Manifestations of Salmonella
  • 2.5 Enteric fever of Salmonella
  • 2.6 Concept of Salmonella Gastroenteritis
  • 2.7 Bacteraemia and other Extraintestinal Complications
  • 2.8 Prevention Salmonella infection
  • 2.9 Antibiotic Resistance
  • 2.9.1 Spread of Resistance
  • 2.9.2 Mechanisms of Resistance
  • 2.10 Clinical Relevance of Salmonella

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIAL AND METHODS

  • 3.1 Plant Material
  • 3.2 Phytochemical Screening
  • 3.2.1 Alkaloids
  • 3.2.2 Saponins
  • 3.2.3 Steroids (Liberman-Burchard’s test)
  • 3.2.4 Tannins
  • 3.2.5 Flavonoids
  • 3.3 Estimation of Total Phenol Content (TPC)
  • 3.4 Estimation of Flavonoid Content (FC)
  • 3.5 DPPH Radical Scavenging Assay
  • 3.6 Microbial Strains
  • 3.7 Antibacterial Assay
  • 3.8 Gas chromatography (GC) analysis conditions
  • 3.9 Antimicrobial Activities
  • 3.10 Disc diffusion method

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

  • 4.1 Determination of Polyphenol
  • 4.2 DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity
  • 4.3 Determination of IC50
  • 4.4 Synergistic / Antibacterial Activity
  • 4.5 Liquid and Vapor Phase EOs Chemical Composition

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation

REFERENCES

ABSTRACT

Salvia officinalis L. from the family Lamiaceae, is a worldwide cultivated aromatic herb that is endemic. Investigation reveals the following problems of the synergistic activity of salvia officinalis (sage leaf) and antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species research work; improper evaluate of the synergistic activities of S. officinalis against typhoidal salmonella species, lack of proper information relating to the estimation of the total phenol content (TPC) and flavonoid content (FC) of S. Officinalis (Sage Leaf), and Improper investigation of the gas chromatography (GC) analysis conditions and disc diffusion method used during synergistic activities. The aim of the Study is to investigate the synergistic activity of salvia officinalis (sage leaf) and antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species; In achieving this aim, the following objectives were considered to: evaluate the synergistic activities of S. officinalis against typhoidal salmonella species, estimate the Total Phenol Content (TPC) and Flavonoid Content (FC) of S. Officinalis (Sage Leaf), investigate the gas chromatography (GC) analysis conditions and disc diffusion method, and provide information relating to the determination of polyphenol. The output is this study will be important in reducing effect of typhoidal salmonella species on sage leaf. Natural plant products and their analogues have been found as important source of agricultural bio-pesticides which serve as antibiotic properties of the sage plant extracts.


Antibacterial Activity of antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background of Study

According to Wikipedia (2021), salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae and native to the Mediterranean region, though it has been naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times it has been used as an ornamental garden plant. The common name "sage" is also used for a number of related and unrelated species (Wikipedia, 2021).

Salvia officinalis L. from the family Lamiaceae, is a worldwide cultivated aromatic herb that is endemic with Nigeria where it is known as Kasiin or Mariamia. It grows along the Nigerian coastline at different altitudes up to 900 m above the sea level (Mouterde, 1983). As a result of the favorable conditions, 19 species of genus Salvia are found in the Nigerian flora (Tohme and Tohme, 2002). Although S. officinalis has many different uses, essentially, it has been used as herbal remedy for a wide range of disorders and illnesses by applying it either internally or externally. It is employed as diuretic, tonic, menstruation’s promoter, local styptic, antiseptic, antiinflammatory, antifungal and spasmodic pain relief (Ioannides, 2002). It is also used as treatment for dysentery, coughing, indigestion, ulcer, varicose veins, insect bites (Dweck, 2000; Izzo, 2005). On the other hand, it is used for treating nervous conditions, trembling, should be used carefully since large doses can be toxic (Jellin et al., 2000). The properties of S. officinalis were depression and to mitigate aging symptoms (Scholey et al., 2008). Moreover, it has a lot of cosmetic uses such as skin and hair care (Barnes and Phillipson, 2007). But in spite of its efficiency in herbal therapy, S. officinalis believed to be due to its volatile essential oil, whereas S. officinalis is considered to have the highest amount of this oil when compared to the other species within the genus Salvia (Giannouli and Kintzios, 2000).

The essential oil of S. officinalis has low viscosity and sharp herbal smell; the olfactive qualities of this oil are due to existence of caryophyllene (Chalcat et al., 1998).

The content and composition of S. officinalis essential oil changes according to the surrounding ecological factors as well as to the plant’s development stages (Perry et al., 1999); Santos-Gomes and Fernandes-Ferreira, 2001; Maksimovic et al., 2007).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Investigation reveals the following problems of the synergistic activity of salvia officinalis (sage leaf) and antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species research work;

  1. Improper evaluate of the synergistic activities of S. officinalis against typhoidal salmonella species,
  2. Lack of proper information relating to the estimation of the total phenol content (TPC) and flavonoid content (FC) of S. Officinalis (Sage Leaf),
  3. Improper investigation of the gas chromatography (GC) analysis conditions and disc diffusion method used during synergistic activities,

1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of the Study is to investigate the synergistic activity of salvia officinalis (sage leaf) and antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species; In achieving this aim, the following objectives were considered;

  1. To evaluate the synergistic activities of S. officinalis against typhoidal salmonella species,
  2. To estimate the Total Phenol Content (TPC) and Flavonoid Content (FC) of S. Officinalis (Sage Leaf),
  3. To investigate the gas chromatography (GC) analysis conditions and disc diffusion method,
  4. To provide information relating to the determination of polyphenol.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are the research question of the research work;

  • What are the synergistic activity of salvia officinalis (sage leaf) and antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species?
  • What are the antibacterial activities of salvia officinalis essential oil?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study provides important information on the current status, activities of S. officinalis against typhoidal salmonella species, gas chromatography (GC) analysis conditions and disc diffusion method used during synergistic activity of salvia officinalis (sage leaf) and antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species.

The output is this study will be important in reducing effect of typhoidal salmonella species on sage leaf. Natural plant products and their analogues have been found as important source of agricultural bio-pesticides which serve as antibiotic properties of the sage plant extracts

Besides, the study will serve as reference material for subsequent researcher in the field or related topics.


1.6 Scope of Study

The study focuses on the activities of S. officinalis against typhoidal salmonella species, gas chromatography (GC) analysis conditions and disc diffusion method used during synergistic activity of salvia officinalis (sage leaf) and antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.

1.8 Definition of Technical Terms

Synergistic: Synergistic is the interaction between two or more substance, it is used to describe things that produce, result from or otherwise involve synergy

Antibiotics / Antibacterial: Antibacterial anything that destroys bacteria or suppresses their growth or their ability to reproduce. Heat, chemicals such as chlorine, and antibiotic drugs all have antibacterial properties.

Activity: the condition in which things are happening or being done.

Constraint: a limitation or restriction.

Estimate: roughly calculate or judge the value, number, quantity, or extent of.

Total: comprising the whole number or amount.

Phenolic: a usually thermosetting resin or plastic made by condensation of a phenol with an aldehyde and used especially for molding and insulating and in coatings and adhesives.

Compound: a thing that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture.

Methanol: Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol amongst other names, is a chemical and the simplest alcohol. It is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable liquid with a distinctive alcoholic odour similar to that of ethanol.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

Summary Headlines for Antibacterial Activity of antibiotics against typhoidal salmonella species



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