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Evaluation of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria

Evaluation of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria

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Reference ID: PS-210-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Evaluation of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Applied Science, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Evaluation of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


Evaluation of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of Study
  • 1.3 Statement of Problems
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.7 Significance of Study
  • 1.8 Scope of Study
  • 1.9 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.10 Definition of Terms
  • 1.11 Organization of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Review of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
  • 2.3 The Practice of FGM among the Edo People
  • 2.4 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.4.1 The Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation Practice
  • 2.4.2 Dynamics of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria
  • 2.4.3 Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation
  • 2.4.3.1 Health Consequences
  • 2.4.3.2 Social consequences
  • 2.4.4 Medicalization of Female Genital Mutilation
  • 2.5 Empirical Studies

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of Study
  • 3.4 Sampling and Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Validation of Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Questionnaire Administration
  • 3.9 Ethical Consideration
  • 3.10 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT AND DISCUSSION

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Re-statement of Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of Findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • 5.5 Suggestion for Further Study

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A - “QUESTIONNAIRE”

ABSTRACT

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) previously referred to as female circumcision was a major traditional practice in some towns in Nigeria. FGM has no health benefits. It involves removing and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue, and interferes with the natural functions of girls’ and women’s bodies. The study was carried out to evaluate the Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria. Investigation revealed that the health effects of Female Genital Mutilation have progressed in recent years. Sexual problems are more common among women who have undergone FGM. They are 1.5 times more likely to experience pain during sexual intercourse, have significantly less sexual satisfaction and are twice as likely to report a lack of sexual desire.

The research design used in this report is descriptive design, utilizing questionnaire method to obtain information from the respondents for this project. A total of 250 (two hundred and fifty) respondents were selected for this study to represent the entire population of the study. Primary data were collected from the primary source which questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection while secondary data were sources from textbooks, journals, newspapers and the internet were employed. The data were presented on a frequency distribution table and analyzed using simple percentage, while hypothesis was tested using chi-square test.

The present study hypothesized that the practice of genital mutilation has a significant effect on females in Nigeria. The significance of this research will help the federal ministry of women affair and house committee on women affairs formulate policy that will help prohibit or eliminate the archaic and orthodox practice of female genital mutilation, the study will also be of great importance to every parent as the study seek to expose the dangers of female genital mutilation among female. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Female genital mutilation should be discontinued by traditional circumcisers due to the risk of severe bleeding with afternoon dilation.


Evaluation of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

Female genital mutilation1 (FGM) is internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women, reflecting deep-rooted inequality between the sexes. Since FGM is almost always carried out on minors, it is also a violation of the rights of children. FGM comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Families, communities and cultures in which FGM is performed have different reasons for doing so. A major motivation is that the practice is believed to ensure the girl conforms to key social norms, such as those related to sexual restraint, femininity, respectability and maturity (Simister et al., 2010 and OHCHR, 2008).

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitation of the study and Definition of terms.


1.2 Background of Study

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Female genital mutilation (FGM) is defined as all procedures which involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or injury to the female genital organs, whether for cultural or any other nontherapeutic reasons (World Health Organization 1998). Worldwide, government and non- governmental organizations frown at FGM having seen it as an infringement on the physical and psychosexual integrity of the female child. Nigeria was said to have the highest absolute number of cases of FGM in the world, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115 - 130 million circumcised women worldwide (UNICEF 2001). The prevalence rate of FGM was put at 41% among adult Nigerian women (Okeke 2012). Nigeria is a country in West Africa bordering the Gulf of Guinea between Benin and Cameroon.

It has an area of 923,768.00 sq kilometers with a population of 140,431,790 according to the 2006 National Population census (National Bureau of Statistics 2006). The male constituted 71,345,488 while the female were 69,086,302 (National Bureau of Statistics 2006). This study was donein a tertiary hospital in Edo State, one of the 36 states of Nigeria. Edo State has a population of 2,398,957with the female being 1,215,487and the male 69,086,302 (National Bureau of Statistics 2006). It is majorly inhabited by the Edo's who are noted for high level of literacy in terms of formal education and is reputed to have produced the reasonable number of professors in Nigeria (Adesina 2008).The 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey showed that 30% of female surveyed between ages 15- 40years had undergone female circumcision with the Yoruba and igbo ethnic groups having the highest percentage (58.4% and 51.4% respectively) (National Population Commission 2009).

Olamijulo et al., reported the prevalence of FGM among children examined at the child welfare clinic, Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesha, Nigeria to be 66.3%.The following states in Nigeria have prohibited this act since 1999;Abia, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ogun, Osun and Rivers. However, with increasing awareness of the complication of FGM, there is a recent ban on the practice in Nigeria as a nation in year 2015.

The prevalence rate is therefore expected to progressively decline in the younger age groups. FGM practiced in Nigeria is classified into four typesas follows; clitoridectomy or Type I, this involves the removal of the prepuce or the hood of the clitoris and all or part of the clitoris. Type II or “sunna” is a more severe practice that involves the removal of the clitoris along with partial or total excision of the labia minora. Type III (infibulation), involves the removal of the clitoris, the labia minora and adjacent medial part of the labia majora and the stitching of the vaginal orifice, leaving an opening of the size of a pin head to allow for menstrual flow or urine.

Type IV or other unclassified types include introcision and gishiri cuts, hymenectomy, scraping and/or cutting of the vagina, the introduction of corrosive substances and herbs in the vagina, and other forms. Consequences of female genital mutilation include increased risks of urinary tract infections, bleeding, bacterial vaginosis, dyspareunia, obstetric complications, psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc (Behrendt and Moritz, 2005, Abdulcadir et al., 2013, Amin et al., 2013, Andersson et al., 2012, Andro et al.). Female genital mutilation is classified into four major types (WHO, 1996). The most common type of the female genital mutilation is type 2 which account for up to 80% of all cases while the most extreme form which is type 3 constitutes about 15% of the total procedures (WHO, 1996; Oduro et al., 2006).

Types 1 and 4 of FGM constitute the remaining 5%. The consequences vary according to the type of FGM and severity of the procedure (Onuh et al., 2006; Oduro et al., 2006). The practice of FGM has diverse repercussions on the physical, psychological, sexual and reproductive health of women, severely deteriorating their current and future quality of life (Oduro et al., 2006; Larsen, 2002). The immediate complications include: severe pain, shock, haemorrhage, urinary complications, injury to adjacent tissue and even death (Onuh et al., 2006; Oduro et al., 2006; Larsen, 2002).

The long term complications include: urinary incontinence, painful sexual intercourse, sexual dysfunction, fistula formation, infertility, menstrual dysfunctions, and difficulty with child birth (Akpuaka, 1998; Okonofua et al., 2002; Oguguo and Egwuatu, 1982). The physical and psychological sequelae of female genital mutilation have been well highlighted in many literatures (Onuh et al., 2006; Oduro et al., 2006; Badejo, 1983; Klouman et al., 2005; ACHPR, 2003; Ibekwe, 2004). Recently, there has been serious concern on the increased rate of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) following this practice (WHO, 1996; Klouman et al., 2005).

The practice is also a violation of the human rights of the women and girl child. FGM categorically violates the right to health, security and physical integrity, freedom from torture and cruelty, inhuman or degrading treatment and the right to life when the procedure results in death. It constitutes an extreme form of violation, intimidation and discrimination. Despite its numerous complications, this harmful practice has continued unabated, notwithstanding that Nigeria ratified the Maputo Protocols and was one of the countries that sponsored a resolution at the 46th World Health Assembly calling for the eradication of female genital mutilation in all nation (Klouman et al., 2005; ACHPR, 2003; Idowu, 2008).

The practice of FGM in Nigeria has been a significant issue of concern to stakeholders in various governmental and non-governmental organizations. Government effort towards the eradication of the practice has reached appreciable considerable height. It is quite glaring that laws abolishing the practice have been passed at various levels of government legislation. However, eradicating this practice seems almost impossible.

A review of extant literatures has exposed the fact that the practice happens to be more prevalent in Edo, thus the premise for the choice for the study area. The study takes a critical look at the practice of FGM in Edo with the aim of bringing to the fore, reasons behind the continual practice of FGM in the community. in the bid to eradicate the obnoxious act, the study made recommendations on possible way of reducing the prevalence of this practice or eradicating it totally in the area.

Therefore, in Nigeria where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to evaluate the Female Genital Mutilation.


1.3 Statement of Problems

Investigation revealed that the practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is regrettably persistent in many parts of the world. This occurs commonly in developing countries where it is firmly anchored on culture and tradition, not minding many decades of campaign and legislation against the practice (Onuh et al., 2006; WHO, 2008). Female genital mutilation comprises any procedure involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reason (WHO, 2008; WHO, 1996).

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that between 100 and 140 million girls and women worldwide are presently living with female genital mutilation and every year about three million girls are at risk (WHO, 2008). It is in view of this that the researcher intends to assess the effect of female genital mutilation.


1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of the study is to evaluate the Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

  1. To investigate the role of the government in prohibiting female genital mutilation;
  2. To investigate the health implication of female genital mutilation;
  3. To ascertain the major reason for female genital mutilation; and
  4. To investigate the effect of female genital mutilation on the sex drive of the girl child.

1.5 Research Questions

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  • Does the practice of genital mutilation have effect on females in Nigeria?
  • What is the role of the government in prohibiting female genital mutilation?
  • What is the health implication of female genital mutilation?
  • What is the major reason for female genital mutilation?
  • What is the effect of female genital mutilation on the sex drive of the girl child?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

In order to pursue the objective of this study, the following generalized statements have been designed to guide and aids in obtaining the result for the experiment to be conducted. For this work, the null hypothesis will be represented with H0 while the alternative hypothesis will be represented with hypothesis H1.

Hypothesis One

  • H0: Female genital mutilation does not have any effect on the sexual habit of the girl child
  • H1: Female genital mutilation does have a significant effect on the sexual habit of the girl child

Hypothesis Two

  • H0: Government does not play any significant role in prohibiting female genital mutilation
  • H1: Government does play a significant role in prohibiting female genital mutilation

1.7 Significance of Study

At the completion of the study, it is believed that the study will be of great important to the federal ministry of women affair and the house committee on women affairs as the study will help them formulate policy that will help prohibit or eliminate the archaic and orthodox practice of female genital mutilation, the study will also be of great importance to every parent as the study seek to expose the dangers of female genital mutilation among female.

The study will also be of great importance to student who intends to embark on a study in similar topic as the findings of the study will serve as a pathfinder to them.

Finally the study will be of great importance to students, teachers and the general public as the finding will add to the pool of existing literature.


1.8 Scope of Study

The scope of this research is focused on the Evaluation of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria using Benin City as a case study.


1.9 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Research Material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  3. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
  4. Initial Cooperation Delay from Respondents: A particular limitation of this work came as a result of the respondent refusal to offer their cooperation at the initial time they were contacted. This contributed in making the success of this research study difficult.

1.10 Definition of Terms

Female:

Female is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells). Barring rare medical conditions, most female mammals, including female humans, have two X chromosomes.

Female Genital Mutilation:

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common

Reproductive Health:

Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.

Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so.


1.11 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc.

Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.

Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study.

Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.

Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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