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Biological Waste Water Treatment in Nigeria

Biological Waste Water Treatment in Nigeria

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-287-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Biological Waste Water Treatment in Nigeria” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Biological Waste Water Treatment in Nigeria” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 Introduction

    CHAPTER THREE

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    • 3.1 Introduction

    CHAPTER FOUR

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Results
    • 4.3 Discussion of Findings

    CHAPTER FIVE

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary
    • 5.3 Conclusion
    • 5.4 Recommendation

    REFERENCES

    ABSTRACT

    Waste water is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, and industrial and or agricultural wastes, and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. The study was carried out to carry out research on how biological waste water will be treated in order to meet standard for reused by final consumer and with a view of acquiring and developing better understand of biological waste water treatment. In achieving this aim, the specific objectives were set out to find out how biological waste water can be treated for reused, save large amount of water and determined the appropriate practical and method that can be used in treatment of biological waste water. In many small to medium sized communities, convert and onsite septic absorption trench systems do not provide adequate waste water treatments and hence cause significant environmental damage to the local water resource. Consequently, many such communities look to alternative forms wastewater treatment and collection for communities. Under the bio-water concept, wastewater and putrescence waste from each household in the community undergoes enhances primary treatment on site using a biolytic filter. The filtrate can there be reused locally, with the balance pump via a small box communed reticulation network to a central treatment / storage facility. Based on the findings, it is recommended that efforts should be geared towards full utilization of the plant capacity so as to maximize its full potentials. Also, facilities should be provided at all State Capitals in Nigeria with a view to reduce the negative impacts of untreated wastewater in the environments.


    Biological Waste Water Treatment in Nigeria

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 Introduction

    Biological waste water treatment system consist of series of reaction vessels which are designed with the optimum mixing energy, retention time, and nutrient addition to provide an optimum environment for biological avidity resulting in removal of nitrates heavy metals, ammonia, and biochemically oxidizable organic mixture as the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). More so, Thomas E, Schultz (us filter) explain that the use of bacteria and other microorganism to remove contaminants by assimilating them has long been a mainstay of waste in the chemical process industries (CPI) because they are effective and widely used. When considering biological waste water treatment for a particular application. Some water are used in household, factories etc which are considered as waste water. Biologically these waste water can be treated and be used again. Biological waste water treatment is the common method used to treat water before it is discharge to the communities.

    As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitations of the Study and Definition of technical terms.


    1.2 Background of Study

    Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, and industrial and or agricultural wastes, and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations (Nielsen et al., 2004). Waste water that contains urine, faeces, kitchen and laundry waste is referred to as sewage. At the beginning of the 20th Century, septic tank was introduced as a means of treating domestic sewage from individual households both in suburban and rural areas. Then a few cities and industries recognised that the discharge of sewage directly into streams caused health problems and this led to the development of sewage treatment facilities referred to as waste water treatment plants (Ikupolati, 2005). Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) are complex systems which include a large number of biological, physicochemical, and biochemical processes (Sotomayor et al., 2001).

    The activated sludge process is the most widely applied biological treatment of liquid waste, treating both municipal sewage and a variety of industrial wastewaters (Aguilar-López et al., 2013; Slater, 2006). The microbiological quality of effluent consumable water is a concern to consumers (Wupa dwellers), water suppliers (Wupa Wastewater Treatment Plant), and regulatory and public health authorities alike. Most recent gastrointestinal outbreaks that have been reported throughout the world demonstrated that transmission of pathogens by effluent consumable water remains a significant cause of illness (Hunter and Syed, 2001).

    Therefore, in Edo State where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to know the Biological Waste Water Treatment in Nigeria.


    1.3 Statement of Problems

    The problem of wastes and its effect on the quality of underground water is now the focus of attention all over the world. The problem of waste generation in the country in the recent past had been quite tremendous, necessitating the need for this project. In fact, the presence of wastes scattered all over cities and towns and even in our institutions of higher learning is a threat to health and embarrassment to the pleasant standard expected of these areas.

    It is therefore believed that in consumption of underground water such as bore hole and well water, certain tests are needed to be carried out before consumption in regulation with the principles of World Health Organization. These tests are:

    1. PH Test
    2. Total caliform test
    3. Test for nitrate [No3-N]
    4. Aerobic and sulphate reducing bacteria.

    These tests are the most important tests carried out to know the physical, chemical and biological effects of Solid Wastes on underground water before it could be suitable for consumption. In additional, wastes are such items which people are required to discard. It can be defined as unavoidable material resulting from an activity which has no immediate economic demand and must be disposed off Items such as household rubbish, sewage sludge; waste from manufacturing can give to a large variety of different wastes from different sources.


    1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

    The aim of the study is to carry out research on how biological waste water will be treated in order to meet standard for reused by final consumer and with a view of acquiring and developing better understand of biological waste water treatment. In achieving this aim, the specific objectives were set out as follows;

    1. To find out how biological waste water can be treated for reused.
    2. To enumerate different methods that are appropriate in treating of water.
    3. To save large amount of water.
    4. To use appropriate equipment to get clean water for consumers.
    5. To determined the appropriate practical and method that can be used in treatment of biological waste water.

    1.5 Purpose of Study

    Generally, this study aims at all waste water found in Nigeria and prefering remedies by which it can be treated biologically. Actually this will deliver home what is really meant by waste water treatment.

    The study is also embark water that contains a few microbes which may be injurious chemicals are absent. It also expanciate how waste water is being generated i.e water from household, factories e t c which are considered as waste water and proffering a method in which can be treated. The aim of this study is to treat waste water which is biological waste water treatment


    1.6 Significance of Study

    These type of study is significantly important because this serve main method to analysis biological waste water treatment or important of biological waste treatment. This study, when completed, will serve as reference material for subsequent researcher in the field or related topics and it will also be beneficial to Geologist.


    1.7 Scope of the Study

    The study focuses on the Biological Waste Water Treatment in Benin metropolis is made up of three Local Government Areas of Oredo, Egor and Ikpoba Okhae and it is the capital of Edo state.


    1.8 Limitation of the Study

    There are some certain tests which should be performed, these are, Aerobic Test, Pathogen Screen Test, etc. But due to the time factor, money and some facilities which are needed but are not present at hand, these tests could not be carried by the researcher. During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

    1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
    2. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
    3. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
    4. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

    1.9 Definition of Terms

    Hazardous Wastes: These are wastes that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or environments

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction

    This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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