Information technology as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware”. It deals with the use of electronic computer software to convert, store, protect process, transmits and securely retrieved information. ICT is a convergence of technologies that include the computer and microprocessor technology, communication satellite technologies and networking technology (Ngurukwem, 2005).
As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.
1.2 Background of Study
Database management systems (DBMS) are specially designed software applications that interact with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is a software system designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known Database management include MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, SQLite, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, SAP HANA, dBASE, FoxPro, IBM DB2, LibreOffice Base and FileMaker Pro. A database is not generally portable across different Database management, but different Database management can interoperate by using standards such as SQL and ODBC or JDBC to allow a single application to work with more than one database. A database is an organized collection of data. The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring this information.
There is a need to improve the mode of doing things in the government of a nation through the organization of a standard error free and fully monitored database so that the keeping of data in every sector and arms of the government will be easier. The mode of keeping files and folders in shelves is now getting uglier and outdated and should be replaced by the modern system which will involve only few computers and its operators and can handle almost everything in the state, with less effort and complete accuracy. The issue of medical care is planned centrally by every government, and is aimed at every rightful citizen; most especially the old aged people who need constant care and medical treatment.
1.3 Statement of Problem
Calculating a budget to meet the citizens need is highly cumbersome, approximation and forecasting to meet the need of citizens has done a lot of harm and usually causes inadequacies in the distribution of basic services such as medical care and many more in Rivers state, Nigeria. The major problem of this study is the inadequate supply of free medical care to the old age people who are above 60 years in rivers state, this people are those who really need to be cared for unlike the youths who are still agile and still strong to take care of themselves.
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this project is to develop a database for indigenes of rivers state that are above 60 years of age which will in turn help the government to conduct a free, adequate and sumptuous medical care for them. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to design and develop an application software that will:
- Replace the current inefficient manual system which includes forecasting and approximation.
- Ensure credibility in free medical service for the old age through adequate database management system in the state.
- Help the rivers state government provide a free medical services for the people within the age of 60 and above through an error free database.
1.5 Significance of Study
This research work will be of great benefits to ICT end users and researchers. ICT end-users those who make use of the equipments or applications to help them in their work. They make use of ICT in their day-to-day activities in their homes and offices for the efficiency of the service. To the Secretaries, the study will enlighten them on the problems that are associated with ICT, review to them the effects of those problems on their works as they carry out their duties and how to avoid them.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.
1.6 Scope of Study
The study focuses on the Design and Implementation of an ICT Assisted Database for Senior Citizens in Rivers State Nigeria.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:
- Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
- Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
- Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
- Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).
1.8 Definition of Terms
Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form
Technology: It is study of techniques or process of mobilizing resources (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefit man and his environment
Computer Network: Is a system that connects two or more computers together using a communication link.
Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.
1.9 Project Report Organization
This project was covered under five stages:
Chapter 1; Deals with the introduction. The background of the project is discussed. The objectives of the project, its significance, scope, and constraints are pointed out.
Chapter 2; This chapter is a Review of database management system and also free medical service in some countries.
Chapter 3; Discusses system Investigation and Analysis. It deals with detailed investigation and analysis of the existing system and problem identification.
Chapter 4; Treats the system design and implementation
Chapter 5; The summary and conclusion of the project are finally treated in this chapter.