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Design and Implementation of ECommerce Website
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Software Implementation of E-Commerce Website

C.S. Project Software
Reference ID: PS-5228-TM

Software Implementation under Computer Science (CS)

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DEDICATION

This research work titled "Design and Implementation of E-Commerce Website" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.



ii


Design and Implementation of E-Commerce Website

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preliminary Pages

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of Study
  • 1.3 Statement Of The Problems
  • 1.4 Aim and Objective Of The Study
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of Study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

CHAPTERTWO

LITERAUREREVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.2.1 Marketing
  • 2.3. Theory of Planned Behavior
  • 2.3.1 Consumers’ Purchasing Intention
  • 2.3.2 Attitudes
  • 2.3.3. Subjective Norm
  • 2.3.4. Perceived Behavior Control
  • 2.3.5. Intention
  • 2.3.6. Behavior
  • 2.4 E-commerce
  • 2.5 Situational Factors
  • 2.5.1. Perceived Product Quality
  • 2.5.2. Perceived Product Price
  • 2.5.3. Perceived Potential Risks
  • 2.5.5. Delivery Costs
  • 2.5.7. Weather
  • 2.5.8. Delivery Time
  • 2.6 Definition of Shop
  • 2.6 Concept of Shopping
  • 2.6.1 Types of Shopping
  • 2.6.2 Shopping Participants / Clients
  • 2.6.3 Location of Shopping Site
  • 2.6.4 Process of Shopping
  • 2.6.5 Time of Online Shopping
  • 2.7 History of E-commerce
  • 2.7.1 International E-Commerce statistics
  • 2.7.2 Customers
  • 2.7.3 Logistics
  • 2.7.4 Payment
  • 2.7.5 Product Delivery
  • 2.7.6 Shopping Cart Systems
  • 2.7.7 Online Gift Shops
  • 2.7.8 Design
  • 2.7.9 Information Load
  • 2.8 Consumer Needs and Expectations
  • 2.8.1 User Interface
  • 2.8.2 Market Share
  • 2.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of E-commerce
  • 2.9.1 Advantages of E-commerce
  • 2.9.2 Disadvantages of E-Commerce

CHAPTER THREE

SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

  • 3.1 Methodology Adopted
  • 3.1.1 Problem Identification Using SSADM
  • 3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
  • 3.2.1 Dataflow of the Existing System
  • 3.2.2 Disadvantages Of The Existing System
  • 3.2.3 Weakness of the existing System
  • 3.3 Analysis of the Proposed System
  • 3.3.1 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System
  • 3.3.2 Advantages of the Proposed System
  • 3.3.3 Justification of the Proposed System
  • 3.4 Functional Requirements
  • 3.4.1 Use Case Diagram Of The Admin / User Privileges
  • 3.5 Data Requirements
  • 3.6 High Level Model of the Proposed System

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

  • 4.1 Objectives of the Design
  • 4.2 Cohesion and Decomposition High level Model
  • 4.3 Control Center / Overall Dataflow Diagram
  • 4.3.1 Proposed System Operation Flowchart
  • 4.4 System Specification and Design
  • 4.4.1 Input and Output Specification
  • 4.4.2 Database Specification and Design
  • 4.4.3 Data Dictionary
  • 4.5 Choice and Justification of Programming Language
  • 4.6 Program Documentation
  • 4.7 Implementation Techniques
  • 4.8 Programming Module Specification
  • 4.8.1 Installation
  • 4.9 Computer Hardware Minimum Requirement
  • 4.10 Software Requirement
  • 4.11 Personnel / User Training

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A - “SOURCE CODE”

APPENDIX B - “OBJECT PROGRAM”




iii

ABSTRACT

The Internet-based electronic commerce environment has been widespread developed, which provides consumers with a convenient platform to search for information interact with retailers and purchase products online. The aim of this study is to eradicate the problems encountered in the manual system of E-commerce online grocery store. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were considered to design software that will be used to purchase an item online by the interested personnel, update new products like grocery items and other related items online, used to make series of grocery shopping online by the several personnel and make purchases for desired item and It will be used for automated system for the grocery store online shopping.

The motivation that led to the implementation of the proposed system is that alot of customers have to queue for a long period of time before getting their desired product or goods from the grocery seller, which makes shopping within the store very stressful, and the customers have to spend all their time just to purchase an item in the store shop which is not right, all because of the manual approach towards grocery shopping.

The methodology adopted in this study is the structure system analysis and design methodology (SSADM) which is a technical approach for analyzing and designing an application or system by applying object oriented programming as well as visual modeling throughout the software development process. The programming language used is HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT, PHP, SQL and JQUERY. The reason why web programming languages was used is because, it is platform independent and it is a web based application. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations made are that formal analysis and design were used to give adequate understanding to the object-oriented technique used. The major quest is to ease the problem and stress encountered in customer’s grocery shopping experience and keeping records of stock list, customer lists, sales volume, and summary report. The expected result is an E-Commerce software that will apply cyber security features to the e-Commerce application for a grocery store online shopping and also update new products like grocery items and other related items online.





iv


Design and Implementation of E-Commerce Website

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

The Internet-based electronic commerce environment has been widespread developed, which provides consumers with a convenient platform to search for information, interact with retailers and purchase products online. According to data collected in 2013, Nigeria has owned around 8.7 million internet users. That corresponds to over 94% of the population, which makes Nigeria become one of the greatest countries in the world in terms of internet use (E-commerce News, 2016). Furthermore, the report brings up the fact that the dominating categories of products that are traded online in Nigeria are travels, clothing and shoes, but also electronics and entertainment/media and it also mentions Adlibris, Cdon, Ellos and H&M as some of the most popular stores for online shopping within the different categories. Besides, the product categories earlier mentioned as the leading ones, there are those which are not yet there due to low consumer adoption. One of those is the grocery segment, which hence makes this to an interesting area for further development.

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.

1.2 Background of Study

Although online purchasing tool should be suitable for all kinds of products, however, in terms of the worldwide aspects, online grocery purchasing still has low competition compared to other kinds of products. So also in Nigeria. Although Nigeria has a high percentage of Internet users as well as a well-developed e-commerce market there are e-commerce markets that are still lagging. Recent years, the online grocery market in Nigeria has been developing. Since 2013, an increasing number of online sales of food products starts to grow. Online grocery sales raised by 38 percent compared to previous year and there are more than one in five Swedish consumers has experienced purchasing grocery products online (E-commerce News, 2014). Besides, the leading grocery retail in Nigeria ICA launched their new online store at the end of 2014 and COOP also updated their online stores to expand product categories and range to attract more potential consumers. Although the many options given to the consumers, PostNord states in the report E-commerce in the Nordics 2016 that “While sales of daily commodities have grown very strongly in recent years, the category remains small.” Therefore, one can easily see that the online grocery industry is developing and popularizing, but still seems limited while looking at other industries (PostNord, 2016).

Internet today has a great importance in a lot of people's everyday lives, not least for pleasures such as shopping. Among Swedish consumers online shopping is something frequently used, and statistics from 2016 show that nine out of ten Internet users have at some time used Internet for a purchase (E-commerce News, 2016). A huge amount of previous research focused on some fashionable industries such as clothing, cosmetics, books, electrical appliance etc, which are frequently ordered products (Young Kim, E. & Kim, Y, 2004; Bian, Q. & Forsythe, S, 2012). Compared to these types of products, online grocery shopping has not grown so big and few previous literature has been explored in this field, which arises our interests in devoting a not so developed area. The low level of consumer adoption makes it interesting to explore different factors that could affect consumers’ choices on online grocery shopping in Nigeria. What makes people prefer going to a grocery store, pushing a trolley through the crowded aisles, stand in long queues, just to later carry their groceries home themselves? Besides, when it comes to online shopping, mostly research put emphasis on Generation Y or focused on only the female (Sullivan, P. & Heitmeyer, J, 2008; Bakewell, C. & Mitchell, V, 2003; Belleau, B.,et al, 2007), however, the range of previous research target is broad and in this study, the authors aim to narrow the range of explored group. Therefore, Swedish families with children constitute the target group for this study. The characteristics of families with children would have distinct buying intention compared to other type of groups as the desired need for them would change.

This paper seeks to understand what factors could possibly affect consumers’ purchase intention for online grocery shopping. Some studies focused on online purchasing do exist and have some helpful findings. The research conducted by Chocarro summarized that previous reviews of literature about the relationship established between situational variables and channel choice and they find out there are seven situational factors concerned with product categories affect the possibility of online/offline purchase, such as distance to store, time pressure and so on. The study by Chung-Hoon Park also revealed that product information quality, user interface quality and other three factors would influence consumer purchase behavior. General factors was studied from some previous literature, and we eventually gather several importatnt factors based on the quesrionnaire we designed. Factors influence customers’purchasing online grocery shopping are various, however, the degree of importance are different. We make use of the questionnaire to analyze the difference among each other. In our questionnaire, we set in total of 11 situational factors that we consider might be possibly influential for our targeted group to choose, most of them have the evidence to prove that there is a relationship with online grocery purchasing intention, however, the authors need to do the research to support that the relevance between Swedish consumers and Swedish online grocery environment do exist. In the end, based on interviewees’ choice result, 8 of these selected potentially situational factors are considered necessary to analyze our study (Appendix) , which are the perceived product quality, perceived product price, weather, delivery time, delivery cost, type of products, perceived potential risks and time saving. All of these factors will be respectively explained and analyzed in the theoretical framework and discussion.

This study could generate relevant knowledge for grocery retailers, since offering online grocery shopping could be a new way for retailers to make money. More knowledge about what their potential customer’s value could therefore help them boosting their sales and profitability. This arouses an interest for taking the understandings about consumers’ online grocery shopping preferences one step further.

1.3 Statement of the Problems

Investigation reveals the following problems of the existing E-commerce online grocery store;

  1. Lack of inadequate facilities for shopping, customers have to visit shops within the store premises to purchase an item and inadequate attention will be giving to them because of crowd due to the manual of selling grocery.
  2. The customers have to queue for a long period of time before getting their desired product or goods from the grocery seller, which makes shopping within the store very stressful.
  3. Most of the customers prefer shopping outside the grocery store, maybe where they come from they have not witness queuing to shop,
  4. The customers have to spend all their time just to purchase an item in the store shop which is not right, all because of the manual approach towards grocery shopping.

1.4 Aim and Objective of The Study

The aim of this new design is to develop online software that will eradicate the problems or the existing E-Commerce Website System stated above. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were considered:

  1. To design application software that will be used to purchase an item online by the interested personnel.
  2. To design application software that will update new products like grocery items and other related items online.
  3. To design software that will be used to make series of grocery shopping online by the several personnel.
  4. To design software that will be used to research about products and make purchases for desired item.
  5. It will be used for automated system for the grocery store online shopping.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The importance of this study is to use object oriented development processes and techniques in the E-commerce online grocery store system. Formal analysis and design were used to give adequate understanding to the object-oriented technique used. The major quest is to ease the problem and stress encountered in customers grocery shopping experience and keeping records of stock list, customer lists, sales volume, and summary report.

This project will be of benefit to:

  1. Enterprises.
  2. Shopping Malls/Supermarkets.

Besides, the study will serve as reference material for subsequent researcher in the field or related topics.

1.6 Scope of Study

This research work will concentrate on e-commerce online grocery store, marketing, and delivery of purchased products.

1.7 Limitations of the study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.

1.8 Definition of Terms

E-commerce: E-commerce can be described as the using of electronic networks, such as Internet, as a distribution channel. The involved parties can be either individuals or organizations and a common sectioning to do is to differ between business-to-consumer and business-to-business (Khosrow-Pour, M. 2006).

Online grocery shopping: Online grocery shopping is an e-commerce based approach to order groceries through Internet. The online grocery stores take advantage of the interface to pick and deliver the online-ordered products to the consumers.

Application Service Provider (ASP):Is defined as an enterprise that delivers application functionality and associated services across a network to multiple customers using a rental or usage-based transaction-pricing model.

E-commerce: Electronic commerce, commonly written as e-commerce, is the trading in products or services using computer networks, such as the Internet.

Electronic data interchange (EDI):Electronic data interchange (EDI) is an electronic communication method that provides standards for exchanging data via any electronic means.

Merchant: A person or company involved in wholesale trade, especially one dealing with foreign countries or supplying goods to a particular trade.

URL: Is an acronym for Uniform Resource Locator and is a reference (an address) to a resource on the Internet

Shopper: A person who is shopping.

Web hosting service (WHS):Is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible via the World Wide Web.

Web server: Are computers that deliver (serves up) Web pages

Expert system: This is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert.

Research methodology: The process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making decision.

Coding: This means writing a list of instructions that will enable the computer to perform any specified operation.

MySQL: This is relational database server that is ideal for both small and large applications.

ICT: Information and communication technology refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunication.

Programming: Is the process of taking an algorithm and encoding it into a notation, a programming language, so that it can be executed by computer.

Methodology: A collection of methods, practices, procedures and rules used by those who work in some field.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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Proposal Writing Format for Computer Science (CS) Research Work

Final year research work is all about finding real life problem and proffering solution that will partially or totally eliminate the existing system bottlenecks. The following are the major and elective project proposal writing sections for "Design and implementation of e-commerce website" research work;

Major Sections
  • Motivation for Embarking on the Project

  • Brief Background of Study

  • Statement of Problems

  • Aim of the Study

  • Specific Objectives of the Study

  • Significance of the Study (Who benefits from the project and how?)

Elective Sections
  • Methodology and Reason for Using It (such as; models, SSADM, or OOADM)

  • Tools (programming languages and software used)



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Proposal Writing Format for Computer Science Research Work


Design and Implementation of E-Commerce Website is a proposal topic for final year research work, which comprises the major and elective project proposal writing sections for Design and Implementation of E-Commerce Website research work.

Major Sections
  • Motivation for Embarking on the Project

  • Brief Background of Study

  • Statement of Problems

  • Aim of the Study

  • Specific Objectives of the Study

  • Significance of the Study (Who benefits from the project and how?)

Elective Sections
  • Methodology and Reason for Using It (such as; models, SSADM, or OOADM)

  • Tools (programming languages and software used)


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CHAPTER ONE

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  • Aims & Objective of Study
  • Scope of Study
  • Significance of Study

CHAPTER TWO

  • State two or more citation from your review of related literature.

CHAPTER THREE

  • Know the methodologies, tools and techniques used.

CHAPTER FOUR

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CHAPTER FIVE

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