Primary health care (PHC) refers to essential health care that is based on scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, which make universal health care universally accessible to individuals and families in a community. It is through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. The Primary Health Centre (PHC) is the basic structural and functional unit of the public health services in developing countries. The application of primary care that many participants share involves a system where the physician is not the only gatekeeper: nurses, nurse practitioners, chiropractors, naturopathic physicians and other practitioners could also play this role.
As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.
1.2 Brief Description of Primary Health Care Building Type
Primary Health Care (PHC) is driven by a political philosophy that emphasizes a radical change in both the design and content of conventional health care services. It also advocates an approach to health care principles that allow people to receive health care that enables them to lead socially and economically productive lives (Dennil et al. 1999: 2). The Alma-Ata declaration of September 1978 defined the concept of PHC as essential care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable health care methods and technology, made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It forms an integral part both of the country’s health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact for individuals, the family and the community within the national health system, bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes health care services (WHO 1998: 15).
In addition, Alma-Ata declaration states that any Primary Health Care program should include at least the following components, namely, education about prevailing health problems and methods of preventing and controlling them; the promotion of food supply and proper nutrition; an adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation; maternal and child health care, including family planning and care of high risk groups; immunization against the major infectious diseases; prevention and control of locally endemic diseases; appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries and the provision of essential drugs, including vaccines.
Primary Health Care Centre is the cornerstone of rural health services- a first port of call to a qualified doctor of the public sector in rural areas for the sick and those who directly report or referred from Sub-Centres for curative, preventive and promotive health care (India, 2002). Primary Health Care Centre is a basic health unit to provide as close to the people as possible, an integrated curative and preventive health care to the rural population with emphasis on preventive and promotive aspects of health care.
We are in a period of major change, with more being provided at primary level rather than in hospitals.
1.3 Client Background History
As part of the “change” campaign of the current administration in the State of Osun, the Obokun Local Government of the state under the leadership of the Local Government Chairman, has proposed an efficient Primary Health Care Centre for the benefit of the people in Obokun Local Government Area, as the current Centres in the area are inadequate in terms of quality of the services they render/offer.
Brief History of Obokun Local Government Area
Obokun is a Local Government Area in Osun State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Ibokun at 7047’00”N 4043’00’E / 7.783330N 4.716670E. Other towns in Obokun Local Government Area include Imesi-Ile, Otan-Ile, Esa-Oke, Ilase, Iponda, Ikinyinwa, Idominasi and Ora.
The Primary Health Care Centre is being proposed to be located in Iponda town in Obokun local government area, Osun state, Nigeria, Africa. Its geographical coordinates are 7o 44’ 0” North, 4o 43’ 0” East. Obokun local government covers a total land area of 527km2 (203sq mi), and a total population (according to 2006 census) of 116,511.