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Hepatoproductive Effects of Sena Tora Leave Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity
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Hepatoproductive Effects of Sena Tora Leave Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-302-TM

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This research work titled "Hepatoproductive Effects of Sena Tora Leave Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Brewing Science, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.



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Hepatoproductive Effects of Sena Tora Leave Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preliminary Pages

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background …

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Introduction

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

References




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Hepatoproductive Effects of Sena Tora Leave Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction
Many of the developing countries including African countries like Nigeria practice traditional medicine as its main source of health care. This traditional medicine is normally gotten from plant origin [Rehan Ahmad et al, 2008, Stephen bent, 2008].Today nearly 88 percent of the global populations switch to plant derived medicines as their first line of defence for maintaining health and combating diseases [Kintzois et al,2006]. Presently there are about 60 types of medicinal plants that have been recognised in primary health care and are classified according to their pharmacological actions such as peptic ulcers, anti flatulence, laxative, anti diarrhoea and anti hepatic[Viomolos et al,2003]. However in future the discovery of novel therapeutic agents will be only dependent on plant origin [Perulmalsamy et al, 1999]. Senna tora is an example of traditional medicine with pharmacological actions as anticholesterolemic,antispasmodic,carninitative, emolliants, ophthalmic and purgative [Polunin and Stanton,1984,Yeung,1985,Manandhar, 2002].
It can be cardiotonic, antiperiodic, anthelminitic and expectorant and can also be used in treating cogh,leprosy ,ring worm ,colic,flatulence,constipation and other disorders[Nature serve,2007]. Senna tora formally regarded as cassia tora is capable of suppressing the production of prostaglandins and other inflammatory agonists such as cytokines, histamine, kinin and free radical.manila,1998 buttressed his observations confirming its use in the treatment of constipation, edema and liver protection in Korea. Liver, the largest internal organ of the human body performs more than five hundred functions, all of which are very vital to life. The liver can regenerate or grow back cells that have been destroyed by short term injury or disease, but if the liver is damaged repeatedly over a long period of time, it may undergo irreversible changes which permanently interferes with its function. Carbon tetrachloride is a toxic substance that interrupts the liver and its functions.
This is to say that it damages the liver when ingested.CCL4 is stable in the presence of air and light, it is also inflammable. Despite its toxic effect on the liver, it is useful as grain fumigant ,pesticide etc. Equilibrium of the body fluids and secretions are altered as a result of carbon tetrachloride. For instance lipid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism and biotransformation functions of the liver are terminated or altered in the presence of CCL4.Thus carbon tetrachloride is lethal. The liver produces some enzyme such as aspartate amino transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase,gamma glutamyl transsferase etc which catalyses the biochemical activities of the body, and on the attack of CCL4 to the liver ,these enzymes will not be produced. Free radicals are highly reactive compounds with uneven number of electrons in their outermost orbit. This can react with cellular compounds like unsaturated fatty acids and can generate new free radicals which result in irreversible biochemical injury like membrane damage, apotosis and cell necrosis.
Antioxidants scavenge free radicals and stop the subsequent reactions hence protecting the macromolecules and cellular environment from toxicity and degeneration [Hong B.O. Shao et al, 2008].The oxygen consumption inherent in cell growth leads to the generation of series of reactive oxygen species [ROS].The ROS are molecules such as superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals[OH]. ROS may be very damaging attacking the lipids of cell membrane and DNA mutation which may further propagate the propagation of many diseases[Valontao et al 2002,Gulcin et al 2003]. Reactive oxygen species are continuously produced during normal Physiological events and are removed by antioxidants defence mechanism [Buyukokuroglu et al,2001]. Many results have shown that some of the cassia species have acquired antimicrobial substances and antioxidant activities.

1.1 Aims Of The Research
The aim of this research is to find out Hepatoproductive Effects of Sena Tora Leave Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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Proposal Writing Format under Brewing Science


Hepatoproductive Effects of Sena Tora Leave Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity is a proposal topic for final year research work, which comprises the major and elective project proposal writing sections for Hepatoproductive Effects of Sena Tora Leave Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity research work.

Major Sections
  • Motivation for Embarking on the Project

  • Brief Background of Study

  • Statement of Problems

  • Aim of the Study

  • Specific Objectives of the Study

  • Significance of the Study (Who benefits from the project and how?)

Elective Sections
  • Relevant Research Questions

  • Relevant Research Hypotheses


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  • Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

  • Motivation / Statement of Problems
  • Aims & Objective of Study
  • Scope of Study
  • Significance of Study

CHAPTER TWO

  • State two or more citation from your review of related literature.

CHAPTER THREE

  • Know the methodologies, tools and techniques used.

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Justification of your work and things to adhered to before using the system or research work.

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Conclusion and Recommendation

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