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Management of Zoos in Nigeria Issues and Prospects

Management of Zoos in Nigeria; Issues and Prospects

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Reference ID: PS-441-TM


This research work titled "Management of Zoos in Nigeria; Issues and Prospects" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Zoology, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.


Management of Zoos in Nigeria; Issues and Prospects





  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of Study
  • 1.3 Statement of Problems
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.7 Significance of Study
  • 1.8 Scope of Study
  • 1.9 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.10 Definition of Terms



  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2.1 Zoos and the Ark Concept
  • 2.3 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.4 Empirical Review



  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of Study
  • 3.4 Sampling and Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Validation of Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Questionnaire
  • 3.8.1 Interview
  • 3.8.2 Key Informants Interview
  • 3.8.3 Observation
  • 3.9 Ethical Consideration
  • 3.10 Statistical Analysis



  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Re-statement of Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypothesis 1
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings



  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of Findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation





The study was carried out to investigate the Issues and Prospects of Zoos Management in Nigeria using Ogba zoo and Nature park as a case study. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out to examine the nature of zoos, assess the tourism facilities, services and management strategies of zoos and evaluate the problems and prospects of zoo management in Nigeria. This study therefore sought to address this research paucity by providing a checklist of animals in the zoo and determining visitors' characteristics, influx and revenue generation. The various zoo-tourism facilities, services and management were also assessed. Data collection was through administration of one hundred and thirty-eight copies of open ended questionnaire to visitors, In-Depth Interview (IDI) with zoo staff and visual survey.

The data were then subjected to descriptive and inferential (Chi Square) statistical analysis. The zoo houses Eighty (80) animals in three classes (mammals {46}, aves {18} and reptiles {8}). Majority of the visitors are Nigerians (local zoo-tourists); most of whom are from the host state - Edo (61.3%) and the neighbouring state - Delta (20.4%). The zoo receives about 2000 visitors weekly. On a monthly and yearly basis, the estimated visitor receipt in the zoo is 8000 and 96,000 respectively. At an entry charge of N200 per visitor, the estimated revenue generation is N400 000; N1 600 000; and N19 200 000 weekly, monthly and yearly respectively.

The various zoo tourism facilities, services and management include zoo zoning, provision of tour guidance, use of instructional and directional signages, placement of waste bins at strategic locations, displayed animal data on enclosures, scientific classification of trees, conveniences, large car park, only one entry/exit point, zoo museum and library. Zoo-tourism in Ogba Zoo and Nature Park is flourishing. It is recommended that the zoo should look into tourism management measures such as waste recycling; creation of hard paths to minimize trampling on natural vegetation and soil erosion; and determination of maximum visitors entry with respect to the zoo's carrying capacity. Based on the findings, it is recommended that Government should provide effective securities services to the zoo in the case of emergencies for visitors as well as the animal’s safety.


Management of Zoos in Nigeria; Issues and Prospects


1.1 Introduction

The term "zoo" is a monument to a long-standing tradition of people's fascination with non-human nature. Since the early societies of the Egyptians, Greeks, and Chinese, wild animals have been maintained in captivity in order to satisfy human curiosity with exotica. Zoos have a very long history keeping wild and exotic animals’ captive was already known in ancient Greek and Roman times (Barantay et al., 2003; Kisling 2000; Miller 2013). Thus zoos can be seen as choreographed and constructed places for controlled interaction between human and non-human animals, guiding the interaction between the visitors and the captive animals in many concrete, subtle and practical ways (Braverman 2011).

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.

1.2 Background of Study

The first zoos were originally just a collection of live wild animals on exhibition (menageries) for the amusement of the public (Omonona and Ayodele, 2011). They persisted until the establishment of the first formal in Vienna in 1752 (WAZA, 2006). Zoos at this time were still aimed to satisfy the public’s curiosities. It was not until the late 18th Century that the worth of zoos as centres of scientific research was recognized (Carr and Cohen, 2011).

The first scientific zoo and charity was created in 1826 in London; the Zoological Society of London (ZSL). The concern for the animals’ welfare and interest in conservation of species, are recent developments, which started after the Second World War (Knowles, 2003). The World Association of Zoos and Aquarium (WAZA) now provide a common standard of practice to guide zoos worldwide.

Traditionally, zoo professionals have responded to the zoo debate by re-emphasizing zoos’ technical or logistical capabilities to deliver conservation programs. As we see it, the process of resolving the competing ideas, beliefs, and perceptions about the appropriateness and feasibility of zoos’ goals and operations is far more central than defending zoo performance. It may be that before zoos can complete their evolution, more attention must be turned towards a greater understanding of zoos’ collective decision-making processes and organizational arrangements.

The roles of a modern zoo include education, captive breeding, recreation, scientific research and economic reasons (Omonona et al., 2011; Baker, 2007; Patrick et al., 2007; WAZA, 2006). A paramount objective for zoo keeping out of these roles is for recreation (Omonona et al., 2011) serving as places of relaxation and entertainment and provides opportunity for people to satisfy their natural curiosity of seeing different species of animals especially from different areas of the world. People of all ages enjoy visiting zoos because of the joy of seeing different species of animals at a specific place (Uloko and Iwar, 2011; Ayodele and Alarape, 1998; Croke, 1997). Some 1000 zoos and aquariums worldwide receive more than 600 million visitors every year (WAZA, 2005). Visiting zoos is a popular family-oriented leisure activity, usually involving a one-day visit (Ryan and Saward, 2004; Chris and Jan, 2004; Turley, 2001).

In the early 1990s the role of zoos in species conservation was one of maintaining populations of threatened species in captivity, acting as conservation arks. This function was seen as an appropriate role for zoos because of their long tradition in breeding and transporting animals. The ark concept is analogous to Noah’s Ark: Threatened species are kept in captivity until they can be safely reintroduced in the wild (Bowkett 2009).

One important element in effective zoo management of ex situ populations is the interaction and coordination among institutions. Many zoos participate in approximately twenty national, regional, or global zoo associations, such as the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), and the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA). Internet and software technology connect zoos to one another worldwide, facilitating their collection planning and species management. The International Species Information System (ISIS) is a nonprofit organization that provides zoological data collection services and software, enabling more than eight hundred zoos and aquaria throughout the world to conduct effective animal exchange programs.

The ISIS database contains information on approximately 2.6 million individuals (almost 15,000 taxa/10,000 species) and is constantly growing. Members of ISIS have access to software that provides basic biological information on animals such as age, sex, parentage, place of birth, and circumstances of death. Organizations and institutions use ISIS to manage their inventory, control the genetic and demographic makeup of their animal collections, find appropriate new animals for their collections, and locate facilities with experience in breeding and raising offspring. This information network is one of the most valuable resources zoos have for collection planning, an aspect of zoological garden work that is becoming ever more important for conservation purposes (ISIS 2012).

Zoo tourism is a niche under wildlife tourism which can be described as tourism undertaken to view and /or encounter non-domesticated animals in captive and semi-captive environment (CRC, 2001, 2008; Newsome et al., 2005). Zoo tourism in Nigeria dates back to the existence of the oldest zoological garden ‘Jos Museum Zoo’ in 1945 by for the purpose of research and tourism.

Today, Nigeria has twenty-two zoological gardens across the various geopolitical zones of the country: two are federal government owned, ten are state government owned, two are privately owned and eight are institutionally owned (seven and one by federal universities and state university respectively).

Therefore, in Nigeria where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to know the Issues and Prospects of Zoos Management.

1.3 Statement of Problems

Investigation revealed that Zoos became popular attractions at a time when people didn’t have any other opportunities of seeing or learning about wild animals. Nowadays, many zoos still strongly state that their mission is to educate people and conserve endangered species. However, research shows that for most part, zoos exist for the sake of human entertainment and that the conservational role of zoos is questionable, even controversial.

Zoos today have come to face opposition from the public due to the way they are managed. People question the conditions of the animals as well as the ethics behind capturing them from the wild and putting them behind bars. As visitor numbers decline and the public boycotts animal-based institutions, zoos are beginning to face an ultimatum: develop or become extinct. The topic around the welfare of animals in zoos is not new, however, the ethics, behind zoo management as well as the problems and prospects are not widely discussed or researched in the academic world.

1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of the study is to investigate the Issues and Prospects of Zoos Management in Nigeria. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

  1. To examine the nature of zoos;
  2. To examine the current codes of conduct in zoo management;
  3. To assess the tourism facilities, services and management strategies of zoos;
  4. To examine the ethics behind zoo business; and
  5. To evaluate the problems and prospects of zoo management in Nigeria.

1.5 Research Questions

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  • Are there problems and prospects of zoo management in Nigeria?
  • What is the nature of zoos?
  • What are the ethics behind zoo business?
  • What are the current codes of conduct in zoo management?
  • How are the tourism facilities, services and management strategies of zoos?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

In order to pursue the objective of this study, the following generalized statements have been designed to guide and aids in obtaining the result for the experiment to be conducted. For this work, the null hypothesis will be represented with H0 while the alternative hypothesis will be represented with hypothesis H1.

Hypothesis One

  • H0: There are no significant problems and prospects of zoo management in Nigeria.
  • H1: There are significant problems and prospects of zoo management in Nigeria.

1.7 Significance of Study

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.

1.8 Scope of Study

The scope of the research is focused on the investigation of the Issues and Prospects of Zoos Management in Nigeria.

1.9 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  3. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
  4. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

1.10 Definition of Terms

Zoo: A zoo is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.

Management: includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources.


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

Summary Headlines for Management of Zoos in Nigeria; Issues and Prospects

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