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Nutritional Phytochemical and Microbial Content of Bombax Costatum Leaves
S

Nutritional Phytochemical and Microbial Content of Bombax Costatum Leaves

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-100-TM

DEDICATION

This research work titled "Nutritional Phytochemical and Microbial Content of Bombax Costatum Leaves" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Animal Science, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.



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Nutritional Phytochemical and Microbial Content of Bombax Costatum Leaves

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preliminary Pages

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background …

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Introduction

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

References




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ABSTRACT

Twenty-four weaner pigs were used in a study to evaluate the response of weaner and grower pigs to diets containing graded levels of toasted soybean hull (SBH).In experiment 1(growing phase), twenty-four male hybrid (large white x landrace) weaner pigs, about 6 weeks old, weighing 5.92-6.85kg were randomly divided into four groups of six pigs each using a completely randomized design (CRD). Each group was randomly assigned to one of the four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) containing 0% (control), 10, 15 and 20% SBH for 56 days. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 2 pigs per replicate placed on a concrete-floored pen.
The diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous supplying 2800kcal ME/kg and 18% crude protein. In experiment 2 (finishing phase), twenty-four male hybrid (large white x landrace) grower pigs, about 14 weeks old, weighing 9.12-9.90kg were randomly divided into four groups of six pigs each using a completely randomized design (CRD). Each group was randomly assigned to one of the four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) containing 0% (control), 10, 20 and 30% SBH for 56 days.
Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 2 pigs per replicate placed on a concrete-floored pen. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous supplying 2900kcal ME/kg and 16% crude protein. Daily feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and feed cost per kg weight gain were determined. At the end of each experiment, blood samples were collected from two pigs per treatment for haematological evaluation. Two pigs per treatment were also slaughtered for carcass evaluation at the end of the finishing experiment.
In experiment 1, results showed that pigs fed the 10% SBH diet had higher(P<0.05) average final body weight, average weight gain and better efficiency of feed conversion than those fed 20% SBH diet. Increasing levels of SBH in the diets had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the PER values. Differences between the treatments in total digestible nutrients (TDN) were significant (P<0.05). Feed cost per kg weight gain was reduced at the 10% SBH inclusion level as compared to other SBH diets. Dietary treatments did not have adverse effect on the haematology of growing pigs. The overall performance of pigs fed the soybean hull based diets was not inferior to that of pigs fed the control diet (0% SBH).
In experiment 2, the 20% and 30% SBH diets supported superior final body weight gain and growth rate, better feed conversion ratio, higher protein efficiency ratio, average daily protein intake and feed intake than the control diets(P<0.05). Inclusion of SBH in the diets reduced significantly (P<0.05) the cost of feed per kg weight gain, especially at the 30% SBH inclusion level. Pigs fed the control diets had comparable packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cell counts (RBC) ,white blood cell counts (WBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values with the groups on SBH diets. While dietary levels of SBH did not exert significant(P>0.05) influence on body length, height at withers, lung weight, liver weight, spleen and pancreas weight; the heart girth circumference, heart weight, kidney weight, live body weight, and dressed carcass weight were all significantly (P<0.05) affected by the dietary levels of SBH. The dressing percentage, relative weights of lungs, liver and spleen were also influenced significantly (P<0.05) by the dietary levels of SBH, while the relative weights of heart and kidney were not significantly (P>0.05) affected. It was concluded that toasted soybean hull can be included in the diet of weaner pigs at 20% level and in the diet of grower pigs at 30% level without adverse effects on the performance, haematological values, carcass and organ weights of the animals.




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Nutritional Phytochemical and Microbial Content of Bombax Costatum Leaves

CHAPTER ONE

1.0. Introduction
Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years. Even today, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 80% of people still rely primarily on traditional remedies such as herbs for their medicines. The medicinal value of these plants is due to the presence of a variety of phytochemicals and their elemental composition. The role of medicinal plants in disease prevention or control has been attributed to the antioxidant properties of their constituents, usually associated with a wide range of amphipathic molecules that are broadly referred to as polyphenolic compounds.
There is a growing interest in the development and evaluation of natural antioxidants from medicinal plant materials in the food industry and the field of preventive health care. Among those herbs, one promising species is Bombax costatum leaves, which is native to the sub-Himalayan regions of Northwest India. It is widely distributed throughout Africa, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean Islands, and South America. Every part of Bombax costatum leaves has medicinal properties and is commercially exploitable for the development of medicinal and industrial by-products.
Traditionally, the leaves, fruits, flowers, and immature pods of this tree are edible; they are used as a highly nutritive vegetable in many countries, particularly in India, Pakistan, the Philippines, Hawaii, and some African nations. In developing nations, Bombax costatum leaves is used as an alternative to imported food supplements to treat and combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers, by virtue of its chemical constituents.
Several valuable reviews of the ethno botanical uses of Bombax costatum leaves are available. It has been found to be a good source of polyphenols and antioxidants. Phytochemicals such as vanillin, omega fatty acids, carotenoids, ascorbates, tocopherols, beta-sitosterol, moringine, kaempferol, and quercetin have been reported in its flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The leaves, in particular, have been found to contain phenolics and flavonoids; these compounds have various biological activities, including antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antiatherogenic, and hepatoprotective functions and the regulation of thyroid status. Moreover, leaves contain trace elements that are essential to human health.
For instance, magnesium, iron, selenium, and zinc play an important role in metabolism, and interest in these elements is increasing together with reports relating trace element status and oxidative diseases. However, a recent study has shown that dried Bombax costatum leaves contain lead at very high values of 352.0”‰mg/L. Therefore, it is very important to identify the mineral composition of Bombax costatum leaves that are widely consumed by humans and animals.
In Mexico, Bombax costatum leaves are widely cultivated in different zones of the country and are found in more than ten states from Sonora to Oaxaca on the Pacific side. Few studies have been conducted on nutritional and phytochemical composition; however, to date, a detailed composition of the leaves of Bombax costatum leaves that is native to Mexico has not been reported yet. In addition, it is important to bear in mind that the mineral and phenolic contents present in leaves depend on several factors such as geographical area where the plant is cultivated, type of soil, water and fertilizers, industrialization process, and storage conditions.

1.1. Statement Of Problem
The following forms the statement of problem of study of this research work;
  1. A major setback in the commercial utilization of African herbs is the lack of adequate and consistent data. Most of the published data collected on the nutritional, phytochemicals and microbial inhibitory content of Bombax costatum leaves, are at variant from each other.
  2. Also, lack of information on the properties of the leaves has led to no processed products from the leaves.
  3. Efforts made so far to optimize the economic and to a lesser extent the nutritional value of the leaves have emphasized its microbial and phytochemical content have largely ignored how other components, especially the herb properties could also be utilized to supplement the medicinal needs of the consumer.
  4. Most studies aimed at fortifying limited knowledge towards the leaves application medicinally have been discouraged due to its inherent microbial content.

1.2. Aim Of The Study
The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical, nutritional and microbial inhibitory content present in Bombax costatum leaves leaves grown in Nigeria with a little trace of its inherent medicinal constituents.

1.3. Objectives Of The Study
At the end of the research work, the researcher expects to achieve the following objectives;
  1. Improve the general awareness of the nutritional, phytochemicals and microbial content of the leave under study
  2. Throw more light towards the medicinal application of the leave.
  3. Elaborate the phytochemical content of the leave
  4. Show practically how the Nutritional and phytochemical content of the leave can be used medicinally.

1.4. Aim Of The Study
This research work is aimed at investigating successfully the Nutritional, phytochemicals and microbial inhibitory content of Bombax costatum leaves in the laboratory. To effectively achieve this, a step by step rudiments was ensured in where the Nutritional, phytochemicals and microbial content was first ascertained as well as the properties.

1.5. Significance Of The Study
It is expected that at the end of this research work, the researcher will have been able to express the nutritional, phytochemical and microbial content of Bombax costatum leave. Knowledge of this tree leave will enhance and broaden people's perceptive of it and its inherent applications.

1.6. Limitation Of The Research
Although the aim of the work was achieved, the research work was faced with lot setbacks especially during the practical aspect. It was discovered the necessary materials and reagents needed to effectively carry out the practical work was limited coupled with the limited time frame given for the research work.

1.7. Scope Of The Study
The research details presented here only shows the Nutritional, phytochemicals and microbial inhibitory content of Bombax costatum leaves with a little introduction of its medicinal uses and implications.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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Nutritional Phytochemical and Microbial Content of Bombax Costatum Leaves is a proposal topic for final year research work, which comprises the major and elective project proposal writing sections for Nutritional Phytochemical and Microbial Content of Bombax Costatum Leaves research work.

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CHAPTER ONE

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CHAPTER TWO

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CHAPTER THREE

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CHAPTER FOUR

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