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Phytochemical and Antimicrobial of Neem Extract

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial of Neem Extract

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Reference ID: PS-24964-TM


This research work titled "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial of Neem Extract" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Microbiology, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.






  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background …



  • 2.1 Introduction



  • 3.1 Introduction



  • 4.1 Introduction



  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation



Phytochemical and Antimicrobial of Neem Extract


1.1 Introduction

Neem is best known for its anti-aging properties, due to its antioxidant properties, neem protects the skin from harmful UV rays, pollution and other environmental factors. The vitamins and fatty acids in neem improve and maintain the elasticity of the skin, reduce wrinkles and fine lines. Neem Pesticide / Insecticide formulation is a neem based botanical product that contains azadirachtin as an active ingredient. Azadiracht in is found to bevery effective forover 600 species of insects (Entrepreneurindia, 2021). Neem is a highly effective pesticide that once sprayed, will keep the insects at bay. It works in a variety of ways from killing all sucking and chewing insects, keeping insects at bay who refuse to eat the sprayed foliage and end up dying of starvation, as well as disrupting the sexual reproduction of insects so that their life cycle is both disrupted and ended (Entrepreneurindia, 2021).

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.

1.2 Background of Study

The neem is a tropical evergreen tree native to Indian sub-continent (Roxburgh, 1874). It has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 4000 years due to its medicinal properties. Most of the plant parts such as fruits, seeds, leaves, bark and roots contain compounds with proven antiseptic, antiviral, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antifungal uses. It has great potential in the fields of pest management, environment protection and medicine. Neem is a natural source of eco-friendly insecticides, pesticides and agrochemicals (Brahmachari, 2004). Neem is considered to be a part of India’s genetic diversity (Sateesh, 1998). It is the most researched tree in the world and is said to be the most promising tree of 21st century. The tree has adaptability to a wide range of climatic, topographic and edaphic factors. It thrives well in dry, stony shallow soils and even on soils having hard clay pan, at a shallow depth. Neem tree requires little water and plenty of sunlight (Sateesh, 1998). The tree grows naturally in areas where the rainfall is in the range of 450 to 1200 mm. However, it has been introduced successfully even in areas where the rainfall is as low as 150 to 250 mm. Neem grows on altitudes up to 1500 m (Jattan et al., 1995; Chari, 1996). It can grow well in wide temperature range of 0 to 49°C (Hegde, 1995). It cannot withstand water-logged areas and poorly drained soils. The pH range for the growth of neem tree lies in between 4 to 10. Neem trees have the ability to neutralize acidic soils by a unique property of calcium mining (Hegde, 1995).

Biologically active principles isolated from different parts of the plant include: azadirachtin, meliacin, gedunin, salanin, nimbin, valassin and many other derivatives of these principles. Meliacin forms the bitter principles of neem seed oil; the seed also contain tignic acid (5-methyl-2-butanic acid) responsible for the distincitive odour of the oil (Schmutterer, 1990; Uko and Kamalu, 2001; Lale, 2002). These compounds belong to natural products called triterpenoids (Limonoids). The active principles are slightly hydrophilic, but freely lipophilic and highly soluble in organic solvents like, hydrocarbon, alcohols, ketones and esters (Schmutterer and Singh, 1995). Therefore, this review will focus on the relevance of neem and its products in agriculture, industry, biomedicine and environment.

Medicinal plants are part of human society and are used to combat diseases, not only those of animals but of plants as well, from the dawn of civilization. Azadirachta indica A. Juss (syn. Melia Azadirachta) is well known in India and its neighboring countries for more than 2000 years as one of the most versatile medicinal plants having a wide spectrum of biological activity. A. indica A. Juss and M. azedarach are two closely related species of Meliaceae. The former is popularly known as Indian neem (Margosa tree) or Indian lilac, and the latter as the Persian lilac. Neem is an evergreen tree, cultivated in various parts of the Indian subcontinent.

Every part of the tree has been used as traditional medicine for household remedy against various human ailments, from antiquity. Neem has been extensively used in ayurveda, unani and homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. The Sanskrit name of the neem tree is ‘Arishtha’ meaning ‘reliever of sickness’ and hence is considered as ‘Sarbaroganibarini’. The tree is still regarded as ‘village dispensary’ in India.

Therefore, in Nigeria where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to know the Phytochemical and Antimicrobial of Neem Extract.

1.3 Statement of Problems

The neem tree has been recognized by the US National Academy of Sciences, which published a report in 1992 entitled ‘Neem – a tree for solving global problems’. Free radicals which have one or more unpaired electrons are produced as a result of metabolism in normal or pathological cell which role is crucial in cell injury accompanied by ageing and wide range of degenerative diseases including inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, liver injury, Alzheimer, Parkinson and coronary heart pathologies (Halliwell, 1995; Erdemoglu et al., 2006; Gutteridge, 1994). Antioxidants prevent occurrence of these diseases by inhibiting the oxidation of oxidizable materials by scavenging free radicals and diminishing oxidative stress (Durackova, 2010; Reuter et al., 2010).

1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of this study is to determine the Phytochemical and Antimicrobial of Neem Extract. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

  1. To determine the Phytochemical Analysis of Methanol Leaf Extract of Azadirachta Indica
  2. To assess the usefulness of Clotlytic Activity towards Methanol Leaf Extract of Azadirachta Indica

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.

1.6 Scope of Study

The study focuses on the Phytochemical and Antimicrobial of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Extract.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  3. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
  4. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).

1.8 Definition of Technical Terms

Extraction: Extractions are a way to separate a desired substance when it is mixed with others.

Oil: Oil is a viscous liquid derived from petroleum, especially for use as a fuel or lubricant.

Production: Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (output). It is the act of creating an output, a good or service which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals.

Pesticide: Pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.

Neem: Neem is a natural herb that comes from the neem tree, other names for which include Azadirachta indica and Indian lilac.

Seed: the unit of reproduction of a flowering plant, capable of developing into another such plant.

Neem Seed: Neem is a natural herb that comes from the neem tree, other names for which include Azadirachta indica and Indian lilac. The extract comes from the seeds of the tree and has many different traditional uses.

Adverse Effect: An adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention, such as surgery.

Synthetic Pesticide: Synthetic pesticides are products that are produced from chemical alteration.

Insecticide: Insecticides are pesticides that are formulated to kill, harm, repel or mitigate one or more species of insect. Insecticides work in different ways.


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

Summary Headlines for Phytochemical and Antimicrobial of Neem Extract

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