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Quality Acceptability and Microbial Composition of Ensiled Breweries Spent Grains with Yam Peels
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Quality, Acceptability and Microbial Composition of Ensiled Breweries Spent Grains with Yam Peels

Project / Seminar Material
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Animal Science, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.



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Quality, Acceptability and Microbial Composition of Ensiled Breweries Spent Grains with Yam Peels

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preliminary Pages

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background …

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Introduction

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

References




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Quality, Acceptability and Microbial Composition of Ensiled Breweries Spent Grains with Yam Peels

CHAPTER ONE

1.0. Introduction
Great emphasis continue to be placed on research into the use of alternative feedstuff for energy sources for livestock production in Nigeria as one of the major problem of ruminant animal production is forage scarcity especially in the dry season.
During the rainy season, forages are relatively available and animals may gain weight easily and remain thrifty. The next six months are always followed by scarcity of forages as a consequence of the dry period resulting in standing hay and low quality feed that eventually culminate in growth retardation of the animal (Babayemi et al., 2003).
Apart from forage scarcity, forage quality is also one of the main problems that affect ruminant feeding in the tropics on which a low nitrogen (N) content and high lignifications have an effect (Medina et al., 2003). All this interferes with their digestibility and therefore with the benefits animal can obtain from them.
However, feed accounts for 70-80% of the total cost of production in Nigeria (Ogunfowora, 1984). This is as a result of the fact that the conventional energy source that has the lion share is being competed for by man, livestock and industries.
To solve the above-mentioned problem, is to search for or identify an alternative energy source such that can meet the nutrient requirement of farm animals less competed for by man and of no industrial usage (Akinmutini, 2004).
Yam peel (Dioscorea rutundata) is one of the various farm wastes that have such potentials (Adeyemo and Borrie, 2002). Yam peel is cheaply available in Nigeria (Akinmutimi et al., 2006). White yam peel consists of 11% crude protein with metabolizable energy of 2604Kcal/g (Akanno, 1998). Dioscorea rutundata peels are rich in amino acid (Eka 1985).
There are several agro industrial by products that are also useful. One which deserves mention here is Brewer's spent gain (also called spent grains, Brewer's gain or Draft). It is a by product of beer brewing consisting of the materials that remains after gains have been fermented. (Daccord, 1996). It consist primarily of grain husks, pericarp, and fragments of endosperm. By mass, spent grains consist of about half carbohydrates, and the rest being mostly protein and lignin.
Carbohydrates include traces of starch, cellulose, glucans and arabinoxyland (Beldman et al., 2004). Spent grain is considered to be a good source of degradable proteins and water-soluble vitamins in animal feed they have been used in feeding both ruminant and monogastrics.
Silage feeding is an effective and easily adaptable technique despite its limited application in tropical regions (Babayemi, 2009).
Therefore, this study was designed to determine the acceptability, quality and microbiology of yam peels ensiled with brewer's spent grain.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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Quality, Acceptability and Microbial Composition of Ensiled Breweries Spent Grains with Yam Peels is a proposal topic for final year research work, which comprises the major and elective project proposal writing sections for Quality, Acceptability and Microbial Composition of Ensiled Breweries Spent Grains with Yam Peels research work.

Major Sections
  • Motivation for Embarking on the Project

  • Brief Background of Study

  • Statement of Problems

  • Aim of the Study

  • Specific Objectives of the Study

  • Significance of the Study (Who benefits from the project and how?)

Elective Sections
  • Relevant Research Questions

  • Relevant Research Hypotheses


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  • Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

  • Motivation / Statement of Problems
  • Aims & Objective of Study
  • Scope of Study
  • Significance of Study

CHAPTER TWO

  • State two or more citation from your review of related literature.

CHAPTER THREE

  • Know the methodologies, tools and techniques used.

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Justification of your work and things to adhered to before using the system or research work.

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Conclusion and Recommendation

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