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The Prevalence of Poultry Disease and Its Mortality Rate

The Prevalence of Poultry Disease and It's Mortality Rate

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Reference ID: PS-61-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “The Prevalence of Poultry Disease and It's Mortality Rate” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Animal Science, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “The Prevalence of Poultry Disease and It's Mortality Rate” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


The Prevalence of Poultry Disease and It’s Mortality Rate

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Agriculture in Nigeria has remained the largest sector contributing nearly 39% to the gross domestic product for the past two decades and employing nearly 60% of its workforce. Over 80% of the countrys population in the rural areas is directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture for its livelihood (NBC,2005). The Nigeria livestock resources consist of 13,885,813 cattle; 34,453,724 Goat; 22,092, 602 sheep; 3,406,381 pigs; 104,247,960 poultry (Rim, 1992). From these figures, poultry is about 58. 72% of the total livestock production which indicates the place of poultry sub-sections in the livestock industry.Poultry plays an important economic, nutritional and socio-cultural role in the livelihood or rural household in many developing countries including Nigeria. Poultry are birds that include fowl, turkey, duck, goose, ostrich guinea fowl, pigeon etc. which render not only economic services but contribute significantly to human food as a primary supplier of meat, egg, raw materials for industries (feathers, waste products), source of income and employment to people compare to other domestic animals (Avila 1985; Demehe, 2004).

Poultry meat and eggs play a very useful role in protein production in Nigeria. They are palatable and generally acceptable. This acceptability cuts across nearly all cultural region boundaries in Nigeria. Poultry industry plays important role in the development of Nigeria economy. Poultry production has become a full time job for many Nigerians and significantly contribute to the Groose National Product (GNP) (Umeh and Odo; 2002). Poultry products mainly meat and eggs represent important food for improving the nutritional status particularly of the most vulnerable populations-children and pregnant women. Poultry production is an important part of farming in many parts of the world. The major attracting factor in poultry production is probably the tendency of providing a fairly rapid return on capital (Abdulkali; 2002).

A lot of losses in poultry have been linked to diseases causing agents such as viruses, bacteria and parasites. It has been estimated that more than 750 million chicken, guinea fowls and duckling in Africa die each year as a result of various infections (Sonaiya 1990). Although somewhat in birds parasitic has been achieved by commercial production system mostly due to improved housing hygiene and management practices, the prevalence of infectious diseases is still very rampant (pandry et at:1992). Nigeria has a comparatively well developed poultry industry for West African Nation. Apantaku (2006) described this trend to the low level of poultry production in comparison to the level of poultry technologies being generated by Nigerian poultry researchers. The prevailing situation became worsen in 2006 by the reported outbreak of highly pathogenic and viral diseases like Avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and coccidiosis. Obayelu (2007) reports that the diseases outbreak led many poultry farmer into psychological breakdown due to losses incurred and also affected animal protein intake of a large sector of Nigeria population.

Major limitations confronting the industry are numerous. The problems confronting the poultry industry in Nigeria include disease, low egg production, poor chick quality, poor weight gain, lack of capital, management problems etc (Van et al.; 1995; Apan taku et al; 1998; Ojo; 2003). Other problems include high cost of drugs and equipment such as battery cases, high cost of feeding, increasing cost of medications, marketing and lack of storage facilities as well as unfriendly government policy and finance. Sources of economic losses in poultry include lack of technical know-how, poor quality feed, poor housing, mismanagement and of great significance, disease outbreak which had received tremendous attention (Adekumisi et al; 1996; Torimiiro et. al., 2002). Despite the economic significance of the diseases to the commercial and small scale poultry producers in the country, no substantial research has been done to asses its economic losses. With the increasing interest in poultry production evidenced by the proliferation in poultry farms, it is pertinent to continually evaluate the prevalence rate and management issues associated with common poultry disease such as Avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and coccidiosis.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The incidence of poultry diseases in Nigeria has led many poultry farmers into psychological breakdown due to losses incurred. Poultry diseases has a gross attack rate on commercial poultry production. Culling birds in order to eradicate and control the spread of the diseases has negatively affected the livelihoods of all classes of poultry owners and producers. Such an impact is most serious on the smaller family producer and commercial producer whom poultry production is their sole of income generation.

Effects of poultry diseases on the economy. Where market is lost through the reduced rate to export, restriction of movement of birds and the closing of some domestic markets is especially the constraint which affect the income generating ability of smaller producers in the zone (Mettzer et al., 1999). The non consumption of poultry meat as well as its products has also affected animal protein intake in the large sector of the population.

The most pronounced affect is the sharp decline in demand as people avoided eating and demanding for poultry product out of fear of being infected (WHO, 2004a). The survivability of poultry industry in Nigeria is very low due to poor management techniques embarked upon by rural poultry farmers, and outbreak of seasonally defendant diseases that can account for high chick losses and mortality.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The study is aimed at examining the prevalence rate of poultry diseases and mortality of flock in the study area. Specifically the study seeks the following objectives.

  1. To determine the prevalence rate of Avian influence and its mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.
  2. To determine the prevalence rate of Newcastle Disease and it mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.
  3. To determine the prevalence rate of infectious Bursal disease and its mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.
  4. To determine the prevalence rate of coccidiosis and its mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Questions

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  • What is the prevalence rate of Avian influenza and its mortality rate in poultry on Uyo Local Government Area
  • What is the prevalence rate of Newcastle diseases and its mortaility rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area
  • What is the prevalence rate of infectious Bursal disease and its mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area
  • What is the prevalence rate of coccidiocsis and its mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area

1.5 Significance of the Study

The following are the significance of this research, which is stated as follows:

  1. The finding of this study will motivate the farmer to produce quality and disease free products capable of meeting the nutritional requirement of address the problems of malnutrition, food insecurity low income and poverty as a whole.
  2. Nigerian policy makers and Animal Health Professionals will benefit from the study as the studies will expose them to the cause of major epidermis seen each year resulting in death of many birds, and this knowledge will enable more precise disease control planning.
  3. To the scientist, it will provide valuable data for epidemiogical studies both logically throughout Nigeria through collaboration. The data will also assist them with a role informing animal health and disease control policy.
  4. The study will be significant in the training of farmers on improve livestock breads for the gradual upgrading of local breeds.
  5. This study will help to increase productivity of poultry farms which in turn will create job opportunity to the community and reduce the cost of production. Also the more progressive or productive the poultry farm is, the more produce will be supplied to the market for distribution.
  6. The study will help the community dwellers and those practicing poultry on subsistence level in Uyo Local Government Area by teaching them poultry management practices and approaches which can be used to achieve improved performance in their business.

1.6 Delimitation of the Study

This study is delimited to prevalence of diseases on the mortality rate of poultry in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State only four infectious diseases of poultry are being surveyed in the study i.e Avian influence, (AI), Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro), Newcastle disease (ND) and coccidiosis (C).

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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