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Transmission of Ebola Virus on Animal and Humans

Transmission of Ebola Virus on Animal and Humans

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-102-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Transmission of Ebola Virus on Animal and Humans” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Animal Science, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Transmission of Ebola Virus on Animal and Humans” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


Transmission of Ebola Virus on Animal and Humans

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Transboundary animal diseases may be defined as those epidemic diseases which are highly contagious or transmissible and have the potential for very rapid spread irrespective of national borders, causing serious socio economic and possible health consequences (FAO, 2004). They constitute only a small minority of the infectious diseases that affect livestock but are dreaded for their suddenness, acuteness, and the wide spread nature of the losses they can produce (Chris et al.,1999).

There are two major types of transboundary animal diseases- the emerging diseases and the zoonoses (OIE, 2012). According to Morens and Fauci 2013, Emerging diseases can be classified into newly emerging diseases and reemerging diseases. Reemerging and newly emerging diseases can be defined respectively as those diseases that are able to expand their epidemiological spectrum appearing in new geographical area, affecting new susceptible species which is usually associated with the acquisition of new genes by an existing microbe; and referring to a completely unknown pathogen which is detected for the first time. Newly emerging infectious agents do not arise spontaneously they must recently have come from somewhere, usually from animal infections, as occurred with HIV infection, Ebola, influenza and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) (Morens and Fauci 2013).

Zoonoses on the other hand are diseases or infections which are naturally transmissible from animals to humans. According to the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) 2013, approximately 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are diseases of animal origin and approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic.

Transboundary animal disease outbreaks can be attributed to increasing globalization due to better sea, land and air transport of people, animals and goods; normadism, transhumance and movement of refugees and their animals away from wars and civil disturbances. Outbreaks are also attributed to changes in livestock production systems due to intensification and commercialization of livestock farming leading to the spread of livestock farming into new ecosystems such as tropical rain forests placing human communities and their farm animals into close contact with a completely new range of infectious diseases which may have previously only circulated in wild life reservoirs and may be completely unknown. Global warming and the decline in government veterinary services and other infrastructures are also factors that contribute to the increased outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (Chris et al 1999).

According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2014, the Ebola virus outbreak was first recorded in Zaire (The Democratic Republic of Congo of Central Africa) in the year 1976. Outbreaks of Ebola virus disease with the exception of the Reston Ebola virus have mainly been restricted to Africa and its recent outbreak is classified as the largest ever in nearly four decades of history of the disease in terms of numbers of cases and deaths. The virus is highly virulent and contagious often consuming the population but government and individuals’ quick response to quarantine areas may help to contain an outbreak (WHO, 2014).

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

Summary Headlines for Transmission of Ebola Virus on Animal and Humans



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