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Identification of Well Problems Using Well Testing A Case Study of UmuN2 Well of Midwestern Oil and Gas Company Kwale Nigeria

Identification of Well Problems Using Well Testing

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-180-TM


This research material titled “Identification of Well Problems Using Well Testing” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.


I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Architecture, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Identification of Well Problems Using Well Testing” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

Identification of Well Problems Using Well Testing (A Case Study of Umu-N2 Well of Midwestern Oil and Gas Company, Kwale, Nigeria)




  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Aims and objectives
  • 1.2 Scope and limitation


  • 2.0 Literature review
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Division of Well Testing
  • 2.3 Objectives of Well Testing (Surface Well Testing)
  • 2.4 Objectives of Well Testing (Sub-surface Well Testing)
  • 2.5 Other reasons for Well Testing
  • 2.5.1 Legal consideration
  • 2.5.2 Economic consideration
  • 2.6 Classification of Well Testing
  • 2.6.1 Periodic productivity test
  • 2.6.2 Production or Deliverability test
  • Productivity index test
  • Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) test
  • Flow after flow test
  • Isochronal test
  • Modified Isochronal test
  • Potential test
  • Pressure Transient test
  • 2.7 Classification of Pressure Transient test
  • 2.7.1 Pressure Drawdown test
  • 2.7.2 Pressure Build-up test
  • 2.7.3 Injectivity test
  • 2.7.4 Fall-off test
  • 2.7.5 Interference test
  • 2.7.6 Multiple rate test
  • 2.7.7 Drill Stem test
  • Drill Stem test tools and technique
  • Drill Stem testing operations
  • 2.7.8 Pulse test
  • 2.8 Flowing Gradient (FG) and Static Gradient (SG)
  • 2.8.1 Flowing Gradient (FG)
  • 2.8.2 Static Gradient (SG)
  • 2.8.3 Complete BHP (Well testing) profiles
  • 2.9 Basis of Well testing
  • 2.9.1 Reservoir Environment
  • 2.9.2 The inner boundary condition
  • 2.9.3 Well bore storage
  • 2.9.4 Skin effect
  • 2.9.5 Induced fracture
  • 2.9.6 Condition around region Two
  • 2.9.7 Homogenous Reservoir
  • 2.9.8 Heterogenous Reservoir
  • 2.9.9 Outer boundary condition
  • 2.9.10 Transient State phase
  • 2.10 Reservoir boundary phase
  • 2.11 Flow regimes
  • 2.11.1 Steady State flow
  • 2.11.2 Unsteady State flow
  • 2.11.3 Pseudo Steady State flow
  • 2.12 Diagnostic analysis
  • 2.13 Difficulties encountered while performing well test
  • 2.13.1 Periodic change of flowrateand pressure
  • 2.13.2 Stabilization period
  • 2.13.3 Fluid Slugging into the separator
  • 2.13.4 Formation Hydrate
  • 2.14 Well problems
  • 2.14.1 Low productivityv2.14.2 Low reservoir permeability
  • 2.14.3 Low reservoir pressure
  • 2.14.4 Formation damage and skin value
  • The concept of damage zone around the wellbore
  • Skin
  • Formation damage skin
  • 2.14.5 Wellbore or Tubing plugging
  • 2.14.6 High viscosity oil
  • 2.14.7 Excessive back pressure on formation
  • 2.14.8 Inadequate Gas lift system
  • 2.14.9 Gas problem in oil wells
  • 2.15 Description of Terms


  • 3.0 Case Study
  • 3.1 Well History
  • 3.2 Production data table
  • 3.3 Production versus Time reading for UMU-N2 WELL
  • 3.5 BHP Graph of Pws versust
  • 3.6 The Graph of log p versus t


  • 4.0 Analysis of Data
  • 4.1 Production data analysis
  • 4.2 Analysis of the BHP data


  • 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations



Well tests exist already for a long time. Since the first oil reservoir was discovered, oil companies have always been keen on estimating reservoir properties such as size. Present day well testing has gone beyond this and its usefulness cannot be overemphasized. This project work is concerned with the use of well testing in identifying well problems. The case under study is the UMU-N2 well of Umusadege field, Kwale. From analysis of the well test data, it was seen that the well had impairment which was due to reduced permeability and thus, required stimulation for improved recovery of the hydrocarbons present. Also, there was high sand and water production which also reduced the productivity of the well.

Identification of Well Problems Using Well Testing (A Case Study of Umu-N2 Well of Midwestern Oil and Gas Company, Kwale, Nigeria)


1.0 Introduction

In the petroleum industry, a well test is the execution of a set of planned data acquisition activities to broaden the knowledge and understanding of hydrocarbons properties and characteristics of the underground reservoir where hydrocarbons are trapped. The overall objective is identifying the reservoir's capacity to produce hydrocarbons, such a soil, natural gas and condensate. Data gathered during the test period includes volumetric flow rate and pressure observed in the selected well. Well testing can be surface or subsurface testing and each type has its own objectives. A properly designed, executed and analyzed well test usually can provide information about formation permeability, extent of wellbore damage or stimulation, reservoir pressure, reservoir boundaries and heterogeneities etc.

Outcomes of a well test, for instance flow rate data and gas oil ratio data, may support the well allocation process for an ongoing production phase, while other data about the reservoir capabilities will support reservoir management. A well is said to have problem when its behavior deviates from the normal production pattern. Typical well problems for producing wells include low productivity, low reservoir pressure, formation damage and skin value, high viscosity oil, wellbore and tubing plugging, high gas- oil ratio etc. Hence, well testing is therefore one of the economic source of valuable information about reservoir properties such as porosity, permeability, fluid viscosity, reservoir limit, drainage volume and vertical permeability orientation etc.

1.1 Types of Well Testing

Generally,Well testing can be divided into three types which are:

  1. Pressure transient test
  2. Periodic productive test
  3. Deliverability test

1.1.1 Pressure Transient Test

This is a means of assessing reservoir performance by measuring flow rates and pressures under a range of flowing conditions and then applying the data to a mathematical model. During the flow period, the pressure at the formation is monitored over time. Classification of pressure transient test includes pressure drawdown test, pressure build-up test, injectivity test, inference test, fall off test etc. These tests requires higher degree of sophistication and used to determine formation damage or stimulation related to reservoir parameters such as permeability, porosity, pressure, volume etc.

1.1.2 Periodic Productive Well Test

This is a routine test carried out to physically measure oil, gas and water produced by a particular well under normal producing conditions. It helps to determine the daily production of oil, water and gas. These information serve as an aid in well and reservoir operations and also in meeting legal and regulatory requirements.

1.1.3 Deliverability Productivity Tests

This is an intensive oil and gas well test which involves the physical or empirical determination of fluid flow rate versus bottom hole pressure drawdown with a limited number of measurements in order to determine the capability of the well under various degree of pressure drawdown. This test is usually carried out on a newly completed well. Results may be used to set allowable production and in the selection of artificial lift system and production facilities. Classification of deliverability tests include Inflow performance relationship (IPR) test, flow after flow test, isochronal test, Potential test etc.

1.2 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of the study is to identify the Well Problems Using Well Testing. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

  1. To study the various types of well tests carried out in the oil industry and how they can be used in identifying well problems.
  2. To analyze well test data gotten from UMU-N2 well in order to determines its reservoir characteristics by the application of well test knowledge.
  3. To make conclusions on the state of the UMU-N2 well on the basis of data analysis and give possible recommendations.

1.3 Scope of the Study

The scope of this project is limited to the data of a particular well test that was carried out on UMU-N2 well which would be used for determining problems and evaluating well productivity.

1.4 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, there were some problems encountered which stood as limitations to the research work. Some of the limitations include:

  1. Time Constraint:

    The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.

  2. inancial Constraint:

    Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).

1.5 Methodology

Literature review of textbooks, journals, articles etc., and surfing the internet for necessary information.

Obtaining well test data of well UMU-N2 well from the company and carrying out analysis with the aid of mathematical calculations and graphical plots to evaluate the well problems.


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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